Complex-Valued Expression of Aberrations of a Round Lens

  • Nobuo Tanaka


As explained in Sect.  3.3, the axial aberration of a round lens is expressed by a power series of the entrance angle to the lens \( (\alpha ) \), which is identical to the scattering angle of electrons.


Power Series Optical Axis Image Plane Minus Sign Spherical Aberration 
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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan

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