Imaging by Using a Convex Lens as a Phase Shifter

  • Nobuo Tanaka


An electron microscope is composed of many of axially symmetric magnetic field as a convex lens for imaging. In this appendix, the performance of the convex lens is further explained from the viewpoint of wave optics. Basically, it is the same as that of a convex lens made of glass. Let us start with the characteristic nature of electron waves.


Image Plane Wave Field Helmholtz Equation Electron Wave Phase Term 
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  3. Jackson, J. D. (1999). Classical electrodynamics. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan

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