Advertisement

Climatological mean features and interannual to decadal variability of ring formations in the Kuroshio Extension region

  • Yoshi N. SasakiEmail author
  • Shoshiro Minobe
Chapter

Abstract

This study examines the climatological mean features of oceanic rings shed from the Kuroshio Extension (KE) jet and their interannual to decadal variability using satellite altimeter observations from October 1992 to December 2010. To objectively capture ring shedding from the KE jet, a new method that consists of the detection of the jet length changes and the tracking of a ring is proposed. Spatial distribution of the ring formations in the KE region indicates that cyclonic (cold-core) rings were most frequently formed in the upstream region between 143° and 147°E around the steady meander of the KE jet. In contrast, most of anticyclonic (warm-core) rings were formed in the downstream region west of the Shatsky Rise. These pinched-off rings in both the upstream and downstream regions generally propagated westward, but about two-thirds of the rings were reabsorbed by the jet. Nevertheless, about one-fourth of the meridional eddy heat transport at the latitude of the KE resulted from the rings that are not reabsorbed by the jet. The number of ring formations showed substantial interannual to decadal variability. In the upstream and downstream KE region, decadal and interannual variability was dominant, respectively. These ring formation fluctuations were negatively correlated with the strength of the KE jet. It is also revealed that the ring formation variations play an important role in sea surface temperature changes north of the KE jet.

Keywords

Kuroshio Extension Pinch-off ring Jet Heat transport Interannual to decadal variability 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank two anonymous reviewers for comments that helped improve the manuscript. This research was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Grant Number 22106008) and a Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (Grant Number 25800258), wholly funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.

References

  1. Aoki K, Minobe S, Tanimoto Y, Sasai Y (2013) Southward eddy heat transport occurring along southern flanks of the Kuroshio Extension and the Gulf Stream in a 1/10° global ocean general circulation model. J Phys Oceanogr 43:1899–1910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Auer SJ (1987) Five-year climatological survey of the Gulf Stream system and its associated rings. J Geophys Res Oceans 92:11709–11726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bond NA, Cronin MF (2008) Regional weather patterns during anomalous air-sea fluxes at the Kuroshio Extension Observatory (KEO). J Clim 21:1680–1697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bush ABG, McWilliams JC, Peltier WR (1995) The formation of oceanic eddies in symmetric and asymmetric jets. Part I: early time evolution and bulk eddy transports. J Phys Oceanogr 25:1959–1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chambers DP, Tapley BD, Stewart RH (1997) Long-period ocean heat storage rates and basin-scale heat fluxes from Topex. J Geophys Res Oceans 102:10525–10533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chao SY (1994) Zonal jets over topography on a beta-plane, with applications to the Kuroshio Extension over the Shatsky Rise. J Phys Oceanogr 24:1512–1531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chelton DB, de Szoeke RA, Schlax MG, Naggar KE, Siwertz N (1998) Geographical variability of the first baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation. J Phys Oceanogr 28:433–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chelton DB, Schlax MG, Samelson RM, de Szoeke RA (2007) Global observations of large oceanic eddies. Geophys Res Lett. doi: 10.1029/2007gl030812 Google Scholar
  9. Chelton DB, Schlax MG, Samelson RM (2011) Global observations of nonlinear mesoscale eddies. Prog Oceanogr 91:167–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cushman-Roisin B (1993) Trajectories in Gulf Stream meanders. J Geophys Res-Oceans 98:2543–2554. doi: 10.1029/92JC02059 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cushman-Roisin B, Tang B, Chassignet EP (1990) Westward motion of mesoscale eddies. J Phys Oceanogr 20:758–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cushman-Roisin B, Pratt L, Ralph E (1993) A general theory for equivalent barotropic thin jets. J Phys Oceanogr 23:91–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deser C, Alexander MA, Timlin MS (1999) Evidence for a wind-driven intensification of the Kuroshio current extension from the 1970s to the 1980s. J Clim 12:1697–1706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ducet N, Le Traon PY (2001) A comparison of surface eddy kinetic energy and Reynolds stresses in the Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio current systems from merged Topex/Poseidon and Ers-1/2 altimetric data. J Geophys Res 106:16603–16622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ducet N, Le Traon PY, Reverdin G (2000) Global high-resolution mapping of ocean circulation from topex/poseidon and ers-1 and -2. J Geophys Res Oceans 105:19477–19498. doi: 10.1029/2000JC900063 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ebuchi N, Hanawa K (2001) Trajectory of mesoscale eddies in the Kuroshio recirculation region. J Oceanogr 57:471–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Emery WJ, Thomson RE (2004) Data analysis methods in physical oceanography. Elsevier, Second and Revised Edition 638 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. Fujii Y, Nakano T, Usui N, Matsumoto S, Tsujino H, Kamachi M (2013) Pathways of the north Pacific intermediate water identified through the tangent linear and adjoint models of an ocean general circulation model. J Geophys Res 118:2035–2051. doi: 10.1002/jgrc.20094 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gill AE, Niller PP (1973) The theory of the seasonal variability in the ocean. Deep Sea Res 20:141–177Google Scholar
  20. Hurlburt HE, Metzger EJ (1998) Bifurcation of the Kuroshio Extension at the Shatsky Rise. J Geophys Res 103:7549–7566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Inatsu M (2009) The neighbor enclosed area tracking algorithm for extratropical wintertime cyclones. Atmos Sci Lett 10:267–272Google Scholar
  22. Inatsu M, Amada S (2013) Dynamics and geometry of extratropical cyclones in the upper troposphere by a neighbor enclosed area tracking algorithm. J Clim 26:8641–8653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Itoh S, Yasuda I (2010) Characteristics of mesoscale eddies in the Kuroshio–Oyashio extension region detected from the distribution of the sea surface height anomaly. J Phys Oceanogr 40:1018–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jochumsen K, Rhein M, Hüttl-Kabus S, Böning CW (2010) On the propagation and decay of North Brazil Current rings. J Geophys Res 115:C10004. doi: 10.1029/2009JC006042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Joyce T et al (1984) Rapid evolution of a Gulf Stream warm-core ring. Nature 308:837–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kaplan D, Glass L (1995) Understanding nonlinear dynamics. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 420Google Scholar
  27. Kawamura H, Mizuno K, Toba Y (1986) Formation process of a warm-core ring in the Kuroshio–Oyashio frontal zone—December 1981–October 1982. Deep Sea Res 33:1617–1640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kouketsu S, Tomita H, Oka E, Hosoda S, Kobayashi T, Sato K (2012) The role of meso-scale eddies in mixed layer deepening and mode water formation in the western north Pacific. J Oceanogr 68:63–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lee T, Cornillon P (1996) Propagation and growth of Gulf Stream meanders between 75° and 45°W. J Phys Oceanogr 26:225–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lutjeharms JRE (1988) Meridional heat transport across the sub-tropical convergence by a warm eddy. Nature 331:251–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mariano AJ, Hitchcock GL, Ashjian CJ, Olson DB, Rossby T, Ryan E, Smith SL (1996) Principal component analysis of biological and physical variability in a Gulf Stream meander crest. Deep Sea Res 43:1531–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Martin AP, Richards KJ (2001) Mechanisms for vertical nutrient transport within a north atlantic mesoscale eddy. Deep Sea Res 48:757–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McGillicuddy DJ et al (2007) Eddy/wind interactions stimulate extraordinary mid-ocean plankton blooms. Science 316:1021–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McWilliams JC, Flierl GR (1979) On the evolution of isolated, nonlinear vortices. J Phys Oceanogr 9:1155–1182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mizuno K, White WB (1983) Annual and interannual variability in the Kuroshio current system. J Phys Oceanogr 13:1847–1867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nakano H, Tsujino H, Sakamoto K (2013) Tracer transport in cold-core rings pinched off from the Kuroshio Extension in an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model. J Geophys Res-Oceans 118:5461–5488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nishihama Y, Ikeda M (2013) Instability processes of mesoscale features in the Kuroshio Extension reproduced through assimilation of altimeter data into a quasi-geostrophic model using the variational method. J Oceanogr 69:135–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Oka E, Suga T, Sukigara C, Toyama K, Shimada K, Yoshida J (2011) “Eddy resolving” observation of the North Pacific subtropical mode water. J Phys Oceanogr 41:666–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Olson DB (1991) Rings in the Ocean. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 19:283–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. O’Reilly CH, Czaja A (2014) The response of the Pacific storm track and atmospheric circulation to Kuroshio Extension variability. Q J R Meteorol S. doi: 10.1002/qj.2334 Google Scholar
  41. Qiu B, Chen S (2005a) Eddy-induced heat transport in the subtropical North Pacific from Argo, TMI, and altimetry measurements. J Phys Oceanogr 35:458–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Qiu B, Chen S (2005b) Variability of the Kuroshio Extension jet, recirculation gyre, and mesoscale eddies on decadal time scales. J Phys Oceanogr 35:2090–2103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Qiu B, Chen S (2010) Eddy-mean flow interaction in the decadally modulation Kuroshio Extension system. Deep Sea Res 57:1098–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Qiu B, Chen S, Hacker P (2007) Effect of mesoscale eddies on subtropical mode water variability from the Kuroshio Extension system study (KESS). J Phys Oceanogr 37:982–1000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rainville L, Jayne SR, McClean JL, Maltrud ME (2007) Formation of subtropical mode water in a high-resolution ocean simulation of the Kuroshio Extension region. Ocean Model 17:338–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Reynolds RW, Smith TM, Liu C, Chelton DB, Casey KS, Schlax MG (2007) Daily high-resolution-blended analyses for sea surface temperature. J Clim 20:5473–5496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rio M-H, Hernandez F (2004) A mean dynamic topography computed over the world ocean from altimetry, in situ measurements, and a geoid model. J Geophys Res 109:C12032. doi: 10.1029/2003JC002226 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sasai Y, Richards KJ, Ishida A, Sasaki H (2010) Effects of cyclonic mesoscale eddies on the marine ecosystem in the Kuroshio Extension region using an eddy-resolving coupled physical-biological model. Ocean Dyn 60:693–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sasaki YN, Schneider N (2011) Decadal shifts of the Kuroshio Extension jet: application of thin-jet theory. J Phys Oceanogr 41:979–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sasaki YN, Minobe S, Schneider N (2013) Decadal response of the Kuroshio Extension jet to rossby waves: observation and thin-jet theory. J Phys Oceanogr 43:442–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schneider N, Miller AJ, Pierce DW (2002) Anatomy of north Pacific decadal variability. J Clim 15:586–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shum CK, Werner RA, Sandwell DT, Zhang BH, Nerem RS, Tapley BD (1990) Variations of global mesoscale eddy energy observed from Geosat. J Geophys Res Oceans 95:17865–17876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Souza JMAC, de Boyer Montégut C, Cabanes C, Klein P (2011) Estimation of the Agulhas ring impacts on meridional heatfluxes and transport using ARGO floats and satellite data. Geophys Res Lett 38:L21602. doi: 10.1029/2011GL049359 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stammer D (1998) On Eddy characteristics, eddy transports, and mean flow properties. J Phys Oceanogr 28:727–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sugimoto S, Hanawa K (2011) Roles of SST anomalies on the wintertime turbulent heat fluxes in the Kuroshio–Oyashio confluence region: influences of warm eddies detached from the Kuroshio Extension. J Clim 24:6551–6561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Taguchi B, Xie S-P, Schneider N, Nonaka M, Sasaki H, Sasai Y (2007) Decadal variability of the Kuroshio Extension: observations and an eddy-resolving model hindcast. J Clim 20:2357–2377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tokinaga H, Tanimoto Y, Xie S-P, Sampe T, Tomita H, Ichikawa H (2009) Ocean frontal effects on the vertical development of clouds over the western north Pacific. In situ and satellite observations. J Clim 22:4241–4260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Waterman S, Hoskins BJ (2013) Eddy shape, orientation, propagation, and mean flow feedback in western boundary current jets. J Phys Oceanogr 43:1666–1690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. White WB, Meyers GA, Donguy JR, Pazan SE (1985) Short-term climatic variability in the thermal structure of the Pacific ocean during 1979–82. J Phys Oceanogr 15:917–935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wyrtki K, Magaard L, Hager J (1976) Eddy energy in the oceans. J Geophys Res 81:2641–2646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yasuda I, Okuda K, Hirai M (1992) Evolution of a Kuroshio warm-core ring—variability of the hydrographic structure. Deep Sea Res 39:131–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yim BY, Noh Y, Qiu B, You SH, Yoon JH (2010) The vertical structure of eddy heat transport simulated by an eddy-resolving OGCM. J Phys Oceanogr 40:340–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Oceanographic Society of Japan and Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Science 8th bldg 8-3-20, Graduate School of ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations