Regulation of Cadherin–Catenin Biology by Mechanical Force and Phosphorylation
In the adherens junction (AJ), cadherin and catenin proteins form a cell–cell adhesion complex that is indispensable for tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. The complex mechanically couples neighboring cells through intercellular binding by cadherins, and actin binding and regulation by the cytoplasmic catenins. In addition, the cadherin–catenin complex participates in signaling pathways that direct cellular organization, proliferation, and motility. Some of these signaling pathways can be regulated by mechanical stimulation or posttranslational modification of the components of the AJ. In light of these findings, we discuss our current understanding of how AJ signaling and mechanical functions are regulated by phosphorylation and force, and speculate on the mechanisms underlying the coordination between these two types of modifications.
KeywordsCadherin Catenin Force Tension Phosphorylation Proliferation Actin Kinase Phosphatase
This work was supported by Predoctoral Fellowships from the NSF (JT, BB-P), a Stanford Bio-X Pre-doctoral Fellowship (JT), NSF EFRI Award (1136790) to WJN and WIW, and NIH GM35527 (WJN).