Evidence for Existence of Endogenous TLR4 Ligands

  • Yoshiro Maru


Before focusing on the discussion of the endogenous ligands of TLR4—accurately speaking the TLR4/MD-2 complex—we are absolutely in need of the knowledge of its authentic ligand, LPS. In human-circulating LPS in serum is detected in physiological conditions in the range of 150–350 pg/ml.


TLR4 Ligand Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Exogenous Ligand Endogenous Origin Bacillus Polymyxa 
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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshiro Maru
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyTokyo Women’s Medical UniversityTokyoJapan

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