The Application of Fish



Most heavy metals have toxic effects on aquatic organisms. Therefore, toxicity tests of these metals using living organisms are required to estimate their toxicity. Fish are representative of aquatic organisms and have been used for the toxicity tests. Model species such as fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), zebrafish (Danio rerio, formerly referred as Bracydanio rerio), medaka (Oryzias latipes), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) have been heavily used. However, the intensity of toxicity varies at developmental stages even in the same species. In addition, temperature, pH, hardness, and salinity of test water also affect the toxicity of heavy metals. Thus the influences of these factors should be considered. The toxicity of heavy metals includes both acute and chronic cases. However, not much data exists for the chronic toxicity tests because these toxicity tests require a long time and great effort compared with acute toxicity tests. In the future, an accumulation of chronic toxicity test data and elucidation of the mechanisms for the toxicity expressions will be needed.


Heavy Metal Rainbow Trout Aquatic Organism Toxicity Test Brown Trout 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I would like to say thank you very much to Dr. H. Kai (National Institute of Technology, Suzuka College) and Mr. A. Nakata for their critical reading of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of Technology, Suzuka CollegeSuzukaJapan

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