In this chapter, we provide background information as to why we decided to launch on this book project. Also we present a general sketch about the organization of the book. Surface finishing technology is actually composed of many processes such as electroplating, electroless plating, hot dip galvanizing, painting, physical vapor deposition (PVD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), carburizing, nitriding, and so on. Each process has already been described in other books. They have sought for various functionalities so far. However, a new important axis has been added to the field. It is called Environmental Friendliness. Therefore, we have to establish the new notion and idea very soon so that surface engineers and researchers, in the near future and beyond, will be able to use them, especially through our effective guidebook. In this chapter we discuss background information about environmental issues and current problems. We also introduce the organization of the book’s contents, so that readers can easily find desired information.