Advertisement

Paths to Low Fertility

  • Noriko O. TsuyaEmail author
  • Minja Kim Choe
  • Feng Wang
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Population Studies book series (BRIEFSPOPULAT)

Abstract

In all three East Asian countries under study, the initial fertility decline was precipitous and dramatic with the levels of fertility cut by one half or more in around one decade. From shortly after World War II to the late 1950s, Japan experienced a sharp downturn in its fertility.

References

  1. Cai, Yong. 2008. Assessing Fertility Levels in China Using Variable-Method. Demography 45 (2): 371–381.Google Scholar
  2. Cai, Yong. 2013. China’s New Demographic Reality—Learning from the 2010 Census. Population and Development Review 39 (3): 371–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cho, Lee-Jay, Fred Arnold, and Tai-Hwan Kwon. 1982. The Determinants of Fertility in the Republic of Korea. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  4. Choe, Minja Kim, and Insook Han Park. 1989. Patterns and Covariates of Contraceptive Method Choice in the Republic of Korea. In Choosing a Contraceptive: Method Choice in Asia and the United States, ed. Rodolfo A. Bulatao, James A. Palmore, and Sandra E. Ward, 105–125. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  5. Choe, Minja Kim, and Kyung Ae Park. 2006. Fertility Decline in South Korea: Forty Years of Policy-Behavior Dialogue. Korea Journal of Population Studies 29 (2): 1–26.Google Scholar
  6. Choe, Minja Kim, and Robert D. Retherford. 2009. The Contribution of Education to South Korea’s Fertility Decline to ‘Lowest-Low’ Level. Asian Population Studies 5 (3): 267–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Choe, Minja Kim, Jianming Wu, Ruyao Zhang, and Fei Guo. 1996. The Pace of Family Building in China. In China: The Many Facets of Demographic Change, ed. Alice Goldstein and Wang Feng, 135–149. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  8. Coale, Ansley J. 1984. Rapid Population Change in China, 1952–1982. In Committee on Population and Demography Report No. 27. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  9. Coale, Ansley J. 1989. Marriage and Childbearing in China since 1940. Social Forces 67: 833–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Coale, Ansley J., and Chen Sheng Li. 1987. Basic Data on Fertility in the Provinces of China, 1940–82. In Papers of the East-West Population Institute No. 104, Honolulu: East-West Center.Google Scholar
  11. Coale, Ansley J., Wang Feng, Nancy E. Riley, and Lin Fude. 1991. Recent Trends in Fertility and Nuptiality in China. Science 251: 389–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Feeney, Griffith, Wang Feng, Zhou Mingkun, and Xiao Baoyu. 1989. Recent Fertility Dynamics in China: Results from the 1987 One-Percent Population Survey. Population and Development Review 15 (2): 297–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Feeney, Griffith, and Jianhua Yuan. 1994. Below-replacement Fertility in China? A Close Look at Recent Evidence. Population Studies 41 (1): 77–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goldstein, Alice. 1996. The Many Facets of Change and Their Interrelations, 1950–1990. In China: The Many Facets of Demographic Change, ed. Alice Goldstein and Wang Feng, 3–19. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  15. Greenhalgh, Susan. 1986. Shifts in China’s Population Policy, 1984–86: Views from the Central, Provincial, and Local Levels. Population and Development Review 12 (3): 491–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gu, Baochang. 2008. The Arrival of Low Fertility in China. In Ultra-Low Fertility in Pacific Asia: Trends, Causes, and Policy Issues, ed. Gavin Jones, Angelique Chan, and Paulin Straughan, 73–95. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Gu, Baochang, Wang Feng, Guo Zhigang, and Zhang Erli. 2007. China’s Local and National Fertility Policies at the End of the Twentieth Century. Population and Development Review 33 (1): 129–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Guo, Zhigang. 2003. Study for Fertility in China in the 1990s, Paper presented at the Workshop on Population Changes in China at the Beginning of the 21st Century, Canberra, Australia, 10–12 December.Google Scholar
  19. Guo, Zhigang, and Chen Wei. 2007. Below Replacement Fertility in Mainland China. In Transition and Challenge: China’s Population at the Turn of the 21st Century, ed. Zhongwei Zhao and Fei Guo, 54–70. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Luther, Norman Y., Griffith Feeney, and Weimin Zhang. 1990. One-Child Families or a Baby Boom? Evidence from China’s One-per-Hundred Survey. Population Studies 44: 341–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Merli, M. Giovanna. 1998. Underreporting of Births and Infant Deaths in Rural China: Evidence from Field Research in One County of Northern China. The China Quarterly 155: 637–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Murphy, Rachel. 2003. Fertility and Distorted Sex Ratios in a Rural Chinese County: Culture, State, and Policy. Population and Development Review 29 (4): 595–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nakamura, Takafusa. 1995. The Postwar Japanese Economy: Its Development and Structure, 1937–1994, 2nd ed. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press.Google Scholar
  24. National Bureau of Statistics of China. 2001. China Demographic Yearbook 2001. Beijing: China Statistics Press.Google Scholar
  25. National Bureau of Statistics of China. 2002. Tabulation on the 2000 Population Census of the People’s Republic of China. Beijing: China Statistics Press.Google Scholar
  26. National Bureau of Statistics of China. 2006. China Demographic Yearbook 2006. Beijing: China Statistics Press.Google Scholar
  27. National Bureau of Statistics of China and East-West Center. 2007. Fertility Estimates for Provinces of China 1975–2000. Beijing: China Statistics Press.Google Scholar
  28. National Institute of Population and Social Security Research. 2018. Latest Demographic Statistics 2018. Tokyo: National Institute of Population and Social Security Research.Google Scholar
  29. Retherford, Robert D., Minja Kim Choe, Jiajian Chen, Li Xirue, and Cui Hongyan. 2005. How Far Has Fertility in China Really Declined? Population and Development Review 31 (1): 57–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Scharping, Thomas. 2003a. Birth Control in China, 1949–2000. London: Routledge Curzon.Google Scholar
  31. Scharping, Thomas. 2003b. The 2000 Census and the Decay of Chinese Birth Statistics: A Review of Figures, Procedures and Policies. Paper presented at the Workshop on Population Changes in China at the Beginning of the 21st Century, Canberra, Australia, 10–12 December.Google Scholar
  32. Scharping, Thomas. 2007. The Politics of Numbers: Fertility Statistics in Recent Decades. In Transition and Challenge: China’s Population at the Turn of the 21st Century, ed. Zhongwei Zhao and Fei Guo, 34–53. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Short, Susan E., and Zhai Fengying. 1998. Looking Locally at China’s One-Child Policy. Studies in Family Planning 29: 373–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Statistics Korea. 2016. 2015 Birth Statistics (Final). Daejeon: Statistics Korea.Google Scholar
  35. Wang, Feng. 2015. China’s Long Road toward Recognition of Below-Replacement Fertility. In Low and Lower Fertility: Variations across Developed Countries, ed. Ronald R. Rindfuss and Minja K. Choe, 15–31. Springer International: Cham, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  36. Wang, Feng, Yong Cai, Ke Shen, and Stuart Gietel-Basten. 2018. Is Demography Just a Numerical Exercise? Numbers, Politics, and Legacies of China’s One-Child Policy. Demography 55 (2): 693–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yu, Jingyuan, and Jianhua Yuan. 1996. Analysis on Fertility Situation of Women in China in Recent Years. In The Collection of Research Papers of 1992 Fertility Sampling Survey in China, ed. Zhenghua Jian, 21–34. Beijing: Statistical Publishing House.Google Scholar
  38. Zeng, Yi. 1996. Is Fertility in China in 1991–1992 Far Below Replacement Level? Population Studies 50 (1): 27–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhang, Guangyu, and Zhonwei Zhao. 2006. Reexamining China’s Fertility Puzzle: Data Collection and Quality over the Last Two Decades. Population and Development Review 32 (2): 293–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Japan KK 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EconomicsKeio UniversityMinato-kuJapan
  2. 2.East-West CenterHonoluluUSA
  3. 3.Department of SociologyUniversity of California, IrvineIrvineUSA

Personalised recommendations