The Development of Salmon Aquaculture in Chile into an Internationally Competitive Industry: 1985–2007

  • Michiko Iizuka
  • Pedro Roje
  • Valentina Vera


Since the mid-1980s, the Chilean salmon industry has steadily increased its annual production, propelled by a rapidly growing world demand for seafood (Montero 2004). The rapid expansion in production volume came hand in hand with the development of new institutions and new forms of social interaction among industry associations, universities, research institutions and other bodies. However, we can also observe that even at this incipient stage, there were already some imbalances in the co-evolutionary process. Chile achieved a successful ‘catch up’ in terms of nearing the production capacity of Norway (the largest exporter of salmon in the world) at the beginning of the first decade of the 2000s. However, this catch up was not comprehensive in all areas, particularly when we consider the aspects of innovation, development of local technological capabilities, sustainable production via monitoring of sanitation and environmental conditions, and overall institutions in general. Thus the process of industrial growth might not have been as successful as first impressions would suggest.


Public Sector Atlantic Salmon Fish Feed Salmon Farming Supply Firm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Achurra, M. 1995. La Experiencia de un Nuevo Producto de Exportación: Los Salmones. In Auge Exportador Chileno. Lecciones y Desafíos Futures, ed. P. Meller and R.E. Sáez, 43–72. Santiago de Chile: CIEPLAN/Dolmen.Google Scholar
  2. Bravo, Sandra. 2009. Investigacion sobre Salmonicultura en Chile. Paper presented at XIII Jornadas sobre Pesquerias y Acicultura en Chile: Desafios y Oportunidades Septiembre 2009. Vina del Mar, Chile.Google Scholar
  3. Bravo, S., M.T. Silva, and C. Lagos. 2007. Diagnostico de la Proyección de la Investigación en Ciencia y Tecnología de la Acuicultura Chilena. Mimeo: FIP.Google Scholar
  4. Buschmann, A., F. Cabello, K. Young, J. Carvajal, D.A. Varela, and L. Henriquez. 2009. Salmon aquaculture and coastal ecosystem health in Chile: Analysis of regulations, environmental impacts and bioremediation systems. Ocean & Coastal Management 52: 243–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. CNIC (Consejo Nacional de Innovacion para la Desarrollo). 2006. Primer Informe. Santiago, ChileGoogle Scholar
  6. Iizuka, M. 2004. Organizational capability and export performance: The salmon industry in Chile. Paper presented at the 2004 DRUID Winter Conference, University of Aalborg, January 22–24, 2004, Aalborg, Denmark.Google Scholar
  7. Iizuka, M. 2007. Global standards and local producers: Knowledge governance and the rise of the Chilean Salmon Industry. PhD thesis, SPRU, University of Sussex.Google Scholar
  8. Iizuka, M., and M. Gebreeyesus. 2012. A systemic perspective in understanding the successful emergence of non-traditional exports: Two cases from Africa and Latin America. UNU-MERIT Working Paper 2012-052. Maastricht: UNU-MERIT.Google Scholar
  9. Katz, J., M. Iizuka, and S. Munoz. 2011. Cresiendo en base a los Recursos Naturals, ‘Tragedias de los Communes’ y el Future de la Industria Salmonera Chilena. Serie desarrollo productive 191. Division de Desarrollo Productivo y Empresarial, Santiago de Chile: United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and Caribbean (ECLAC).Google Scholar
  10. Maggi, C. 2007. The salmon farming and processing cluster in Southern Chile. In Upgrading and governance in clusters and value chains in Latin America, ed. C. Pietrobelli and R. Rabellotti. Boston: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Montero, C. 2004. Formación y Desarrollo de un Clúster Globalizado: el Caso de la Industria del Salmón en Chile. Santiago de Chile: ECLAC, United Nations.Google Scholar
  12. OECD. 2007. OECD reviews of innovation policy: Chile. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  13. Quiroz, Jorge. 2006. Informe Economico Salmonicultura 2006. Puerto Montt: SalmonChile. Accessed Jan. 2012.
  14. SalmonChile. 2009. Exportaciones Chilenas de Salmon y Trucha en Toneladas. Accessed Nov 2010.
  15. UNCTAD. 2006. A case study of the salmon industry in Chile, transfer of technology. New York: UNCTAD, United Nations. (UNCTAD/ITE/IIT/2005/12), 35 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Vera Bahamonde, H. 2010. La Crisis del Salmon Porque Fallo el Tercer Motor de la Economia Chilena? Santiago de Chile: Ril ediciones.Google Scholar
  17. Vera Garnica, J. 2009. Cluster del Salmon en Chile: Analisis de los Factores de Competitividad a Escala International. Revista Venezolana de Gerencia 14(47): 342–369.Google Scholar
  18. Vignolo, C., G. Held, and J. P. Zanlungo. 2007. Strategic management of clusters: The case of the Chilean Salmon Industry, Documentos de Trabajo Serie de Gestion no. 83. Centro de Gestion (CEGES). Departmento de Ingenieria Industrial, Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© JICA Research Institute 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Maastricht Economic and Social Research and Training Center for Innovation and Technology (UNU-MERIT)United Nations UniversityMaastrcihtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial, División de Proyectos ExternosUniversidad de ChileSantiagoChile

Personalised recommendations