Economic Relations Between Myanmar and China

  • Atsuko Mizuno


As the relationship between China and Myanmar become closer under the military regime, Myanmar deepened its economic dependence on China. Although economic ties with China contributed to the stability of Myanmar, but made little contribution to Myanmar’s broad-based growth and industrial development and even resulted in hindering the country’s reforms and in causing anti-Chinese sentiment. After 2011, its rapidly improving relations with the international community enabled Myanmar to broaden and to restore balance in its external economic relations. Myanmar’s economic dependence on China is likely to be mitigated; however, the bilateral economic relations will continue to have a strategic impact.


Foreign Direct Investment Recipient Country Hydropower Plant Special Economic Zone Hydropower Project 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aung-Thwin, M., & Aung-Thwin, M. (2012). A history of Myanmar since ancient times: Traditions and transformations. London: Reaktion.Google Scholar
  2. Central Statistical Organization (CSO). (1995–2012). Statistical yearbook. Yangon/Nay Pyi Taw: CSO.Google Scholar
  3. Central Statistical Organization (CSO). (2010–2014). Selected monthly economic indicators. Nay Pyi Taw: CSO.Google Scholar
  4. Gao, X. (2007). Towards resolution: China in the Myanmar issue.’ silk road paper. Washington, DC: Central Asia-Caucasus Institute and Silk Road Studies Program.Google Scholar
  5. Global Witness. (2003). A conflict of interests―The uncertain future of Burma’s forests. London: Global Witness.Google Scholar
  6. Gurmeet, K. (2010). A strategic perspective on India-Myanmar relations. In L. Rieffel (Ed.), Myanmar/Burma: Inside challenges, outside interests (pp. 134–149). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press/The Konrad Adenauer Foundation.Google Scholar
  7. Hla Min. (2004). Political situation of the union of Myanmar and its role in the region. Yangon: Department of International Affairs & Research, Ministry of Defence.Google Scholar
  8. International Monetary Fund (IMF). Direction of trade statistics. Accessed June 2014.
  9. Jin, Y. (2004). Sengo Chugoku Gaiko to Taigai enjo [China’s Foreign Policy and Foreign Aid], Japan Center for International Finance, Chugoku Sintaiseika niokeru Shomondai-Taichu Sien no Arikata nitsuite [Problems regarding assistance for China under the new leadership] (pp. 115–131) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  10. Jin, S. (2006). ‘zouchuqu’ jianshe jingwai jiagongjidi – chengjie <zhongguo yuan miandian kaifaqu>koshi [‘Go Abroad’ Construction of Overseas Processing Zones < China’s Assistance to Myanmar for Planning of Development Zones> Report] shanghai: Shanghai Municipal Government (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  11. Kachin Development Network Group (KDNG). (2009). Resisting the flood resisting the flood. Kachin Development Network Group. Accessed 23 May 2010.
  12. Kobayashi, T. (2007). Chugoku no Enjo Seisaku- Taigai Enjo Kaikaku no Tenkai [China’s foreign aid policy – Reforms of foreign aid mechanism]. Journal of JBIC Institute, 35, 109–147. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  13. Kudo, T. (2006). Myanmar’s economic relations with China: Can China support the Myanmar economy? (Discussion Paper No. 66). Chiba: IDE-JRTRO.Google Scholar
  14. Lin, T.-C. (1996). Beijing’s foreign aid policy in the 1990s: Continuity and change. Issues & Studies: A Journal of Chinese Studies and International Affairs, 32(1), 32–56.Google Scholar
  15. Ma, C. (2007). Henbou suru Chugoku no Taigai Enjo [Changing of China’s foreign aid]. Chinese Economy, 498, 56–85. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  16. Matsumoto, S. (1975). Chugoku no Tai Ajia Keizai Seisaku [China’s Economic Policy toward Asia]. Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economics (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  17. Ministry of Commerce and Ministry of Foreign Affairs, China. (2004). ‘duiwaitouziguobie changye daoxiang mulv [Guide Catalogue of Countries and Industries for Investment Abroad]. Beijing: Ministry of Commerce and Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  18. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Myanmar. (1991). thamain:asinalakyai:ma:tho tayou-myanma khyi’kyiyei:khayi [The Historic China–Myanmar Goodwill Visit]. Yangon: Ministry of Foreign Affairs (in Myanmar).Google Scholar
  19. Ministry of Information, Myanmar. (2011). tamato aso:ya le’hte’ nainganto hpwanhpyu:to:te’hmu hma’tan [The State Development by the Tamadaw (Army) Government] (2010) (1988-31.12.2010)]. Nay Pyi Taw: Printing and Publishing Enterprise, Ministry of Information. (in Myanmar).Google Scholar
  20. Ministry of National Planning and Finance, Burma. (1987). 1987–88 khuhni’ atwe’ pyi:thaunsu shohyali’thanmahta myanmanainganhto yi bandayaye:| si:pwaye:| luhmuye : ahkyeanemya: tinpyakye [Report to the Pyithu Hluttaw, financial, economic and social conditions of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma, fiscal 1987–88]. Yangon: Ministry of National Planning and Finance (in Myanmar).Google Scholar
  21. Ministry of National Planning and Finance, Myanmar. (1990). pyi:thaunsu myanmanainganhto yi bandayaye:| si:pwaye:| luhmuye : ahkyeanemya: tinpyakye 1990–91khuhni’ [Financial, economic and social conditions of the Union of Myanmar, fiscal year 1990–91]. Yangon: Ministry of National Planning and Finance (in Myanmar).Google Scholar
  22. Mizuno, A. (2008). Taigai Keizaienjo no Kakudai to Kadai [Expansion of Chinese Foreign Economic Assistance]”. In S. Nobuaki (Ed.), Chugoku no Kaikaku Kaihouo 30 nen no Meian [Bright and dark sides of thirty years of Chinese reforms and openness] (pp. 72–83). Kyoto: Sekaishisosha. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  23. Myanmar Chinese Chamber of Commerce (MCCOC). (2009). shiji huadam jinian tekan yijiulingjiu-erlinglingjiu [The 100th Anniversary Commemorative Book 1909–2009]. Beijing: China Statistics Press (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  24. National Bureau of Statistics of China. (2010). zhongguo tongji nianjian [China Statistical Yearbook]. Beijing: China Statistics Press (in Chinese and English).Google Scholar
  25. Shimada, H. (2008). Infura no Genjyo to Myanmar Seifu no Taiou – Doro to Denryoku wo Taisho toshite [Present status Quo of infrastructure and response of the Government of Myanmar – Road and electricity]. In K. Toshihiro (Ed.), Myanmar Keizai no Jitsuzo – Naze Gunsei ha Ikinokotta noka [Real image of Myanmar economy: How did the military regime survive?] (pp. 97–87). Chiba: IDE-JETRO. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  26. State Council, China. (2011). White paper on China’s foreign aid. Beijing: Information Office of the State Council.Google Scholar
  27. Steinberg, D. L., & Fan, H. (2012). Modern China-Myanmar relations: Dilemmas of mutual dependence. Copenhagen: NIAS press.Google Scholar
  28. Sun, Y. (2012). China’s strategic misjudgement on Myanmar. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 1(2012), 73–76.ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Sun, Y.( 2013). Chinese investment in Myanmar: What lies ahead? Great powers and the Changing Myanmar (Issue Brief 1). Stimson Center. Accessed 13 May 2014.
  30. Tamachi, N. (2005). Chugoku no Taigai Enjo no Rekisiteki Kousatsu (jo, ge) [Historical review of China’s foreign aid (I, II)]. Sekai Shuhou (World Affairs Weekly), 86(9):26–31, 86(10):30–34. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  31. Thant Myint, U. (2011). Where China meets India: Burma and the new crossroads of Asia. London: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
  32. United Nations (UN). UN Comtrade: United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database. Accessed 13 May 2014.
  33. World Bank (WB). World Data Bank World Development Indicators. Accessed 13 May 2014.
  34. Yhome, K. (2009). India-Myanmar relations (1998–2008) (ORF Occasional Paper No.10). New Delhi: Observer Research Foundation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© JICA Research Institute 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of International Economy and Business, Faculty of EconomicsKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

Personalised recommendations