Peatland and Peatland Forest in Brunei Darussalam

  • Shigeo Kobayashi


Peatlands, stored with abundant organic matter, become a source of the greenhouse effect gases emissions such as carbon dioxide and methane generated by decomposition of organic matter since such lands have not been properly utilized. Rehabilitation of degraded peatlands has, nevertheless, hardly been attempted. This paper aims to clarify peatland properties of (1) peatland forest, (2) climate and water conditions, (3) physical properties, (4) chemical properties, (5) possibility of utilization of peat as organic compost, and (6) peat land-use changes in peatland of Brunei Darussalam. Natural peatland was distributed by mixed Dipterocarp forest, Alan (Shorea albida) Batu, Alan Bunga, Alan Padang, and Padang Paya. The typical peat of Brunei Darussalam was identified as the Oligotrophic Tropofibrists (Histsols-Fibrists) based on the physical and chemical properties of peat. Especially, carbon storage of the peat swamp forest ecosystems was indicated the maximum 1700 Ct/ha/m. Peat of Brunei Darussalam was also shown the possibility of organic compost, but the problems were pointed out its difficulties of natural regeneration after harvesting and the surface sink-age.


Alan (Shorea albida) forests Physical properties of peat Chemical properties of peat Carbon storage Compost utilization 


  1. Anderson JAR (1964) The structure and development of the peat swamps of Sarawak and Brunei. J Trop Geogr 18:7–16Google Scholar
  2. Burslem DFRP (1996) Differential response to nutrients, shade and drought among tree seedlings of lowland tropical forest in Singapore. In: Swaine MD (ed) The ecology of tropical forest tree seedlings, vol 17, MAB. The Parthenon Publishing Group, Paris, pp 211–244Google Scholar
  3. Fujita K (1987) Manures made of livestock excreta and their application to the nursery. TARQ 21:129–133Google Scholar
  4. Gunatilleke CVS, Perera GAD, Ashton PMS, Ashton PS, Gunatilleke IAUN (1996) Seedling growth of Shorea section Doona (Dipterocarpaceae) in soils from topographically different sites of Sinharaja rain forest in Sri Lanka. In: Swaine MD (ed) The ecology of tropical forest tree seedlings, vol 17, MAB. The Parthenon Publishing Group, Paris, pp 245–265Google Scholar
  5. Gunawan H (2012) Rehabilitation of degraded peat swamp forest for the promotion of ecosystem services and rural livelihoods in Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu Biosphere Reserve, Riau, Indonesia. Ph.D. Thesis. Kyoto University, KyotoGoogle Scholar
  6. Kobayashi S (1988) The maintenance and effective use of forest resources in Negara Brunei Darussalam. Forest Research Note in Brunei Darussalam. RNB-11, p 175Google Scholar
  7. Kobayashi S (1994) Effects of harvesting impacts and rehabilitation of tropical rain forest. Journal of Plant Research 107:99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kobayashi S (1997a) Site conditions of peat swamp forest and vegetation recovery process after harvesting in Seria, Brunei Darussalam. International Workshop on Environmental Management of Wetland Ecosystem in South East Asia. Abstracts. JSPS, Palangka Raya, p 29Google Scholar
  9. Kobayashi S (1997b) Rehabilitation of a logged-over peat swamp forest (Shorea albida) in Brunei Darussalam. International Workshop on the Management of Secondary Forests in Indonesia. Abstracts. CIFOR/USAID, Bogor, pp 10–11Google Scholar
  10. Kobayashi S (2000) Initial phase of secondary succession in the exploited peat swamp forest (Shorea albida) at Sungai Damit, Belat in Brunei Darussalam. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Tropical Peat lands, Hokkaido University, pp 205–214Google Scholar
  11. Kobayashi S (2004) Landscape rehabilitation of degraded tropical forest ecosystems-case study of the CIFOR/Japan project in Indonesia and Peru. For Ecol Manag 201:13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kobayashi S (2007) Study on the option of land resources management and the empowerment for local community in the lowland swamp forest in Southeast Asia. Summary report of research results under the GERF. Ministry of Environment, Japan, pp 60–72Google Scholar
  13. Kobayashi S (2012) Chapter 4: Tropical peat swamp forest ecosystem and REDD+. In: Kawai S (ed) Reclamation of tropical biomass society. Kyoto University Publication, Kyoto, pp 193–215, in JapaneseGoogle Scholar
  14. Kobayashi S, Ochiai Y, Jily R, Wahid R (1989) Interim report on the utilization of peat resources in Brunei Darussalam. Forest research note in Brunei Darussalam. RNB 31:1–37Google Scholar
  15. Kuusipalo J, Jafarsidik Y, Adjers G, Tumelo K (1996) Population dynamics of tree seedlings in a mixed dipterocarp rainforest before and after logging and crown liberation. Forest Ecology and Management 81:85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kyuma K et al. (TARQ) (1986) Lowland swamp in South East Asia. Norin-Tokei, p 301 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  17. Matsune K, Kojima K, Tange T, Yagi H, Soda R, Kobayashi N, Sasaki S (1994) Growth responses of Dipterocarp seedlings to various light conditions in the field. In Proceedings of International Workshop BIO-REFOR, Yogyakarta, pp 78–80Google Scholar
  18. Page SE, Rieley JO, Shotyk OW, Weiss D (1999) Interdependence of peat and vegetation in a tropical peat swamp forests. Philos Trans Roy Soc Lond B 354:1885–1897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Shimamura T (2004) Plant species coexistence controlled by organic matter dynamics in the tropical peat swamp forest in Riau, East Sumatra, Indonesia. Ph.D. Thesis. Kyoto University, KyotoGoogle Scholar
  20. Stoneman R (1997) Ecological studies in the Badas peat swamps, Brunei Darussalam. In: Rieley JO, Page SE (eds) Biodiversity and sustainability of tropical peatlands. Samara Publishing, Cardigan, pp 221–230Google Scholar
  21. Takahashi HH, Yoneta Y (1997) Studies on microclimate and hydrology of peat swamp forest in Central Kalimantan Indonesia. In: Rieley JO, Page SE (eds) Biodiversity and sustainability of tropical Peatlands. Samara Publishing, Cardigan, pp 179–187Google Scholar
  22. USDA (1990) Keys to soil taxonomy, p 422Google Scholar
  23. Whitmore TC (1984) Tropical rain forests of the Far East, 2nd edn. Clarendon, Oxford, p 352Google Scholar
  24. Yamada I (1984) Lowland swamp forests in Southeast Asia, 4. Peat swamp forests. Res SE Asia 22:214–233Google Scholar
  25. Yonebayashi K, Okazaki M, Kaneko N, Funakawa S (1997) Tropical peatland soil ecosystems in Southeast Asia: their characterisation and sustainable utilization. In: Rieley JO, Page SE (eds) Biodiversity and sustainability of tropical peatlands. Samara Publishing, Cardigan, pp 103–111Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Asian and African Area StudiesKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations