Tibetan Buddhism, Bon, and Animism

  • Kazuharu Mizuno
  • Lobsang Tenpa
Part of the International Perspectives in Geography book series (IPG, volume 6)


People in the Monpa area have followed the Bon religion for many centuries. The Nyingma [rnying ma] sect of Tibetan Buddhism has existed in that area since the eighth century; the Gelug [dge lugs] sect arose in the fifteenth century. Tawang Monastery has long been the central institution of Tibetan Buddhism in the Monpa area. Elements of Tibetan Buddhism and Bon were combined to create a synthesized faith, which has exerted a strong impact on the cultures and societies of that region. In Bon religion, spirits and deities of the mountains have been worshipped as mountain gods for ages. Mountain gods are particular to each area and local people pray and give ritual offerings to their mountain gods in ceremonies. In the Monpa area, Tantric (Esoteric) Buddhism has also been a major influence. The focus of this chapter is on the current relationship between the inhabitants in the Monpa area and their faith. This chapter also examines the daily lives of people engaged in various religious practices.


Tibetan Buddhism Monastery Ritual Tantric Buddhism Fortune-telling 

Supplementary material


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazuharu Mizuno
    • 1
  • Lobsang Tenpa
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geography Graduate School of LettersKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  2. 2.Institute for South and Central Asian StudiesUniversity of LeipzigLeipzigGermany

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