The differential diagnosis of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is predominantly with: (1) benign and borderline clear cell tumors (not a frequent problem because of the rarity of these lesions); (2) other primary ovarian epithelial tumors, mostly carcinomas but occasionally borderline tumors; (3) ovarian germ cell and sex cord-stromal tumors; and (4) metastatic tumors in the ovary. The most problematic ovarian epithelial tumors in the differential diagnosis are high-grade serous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, and serous borderline tumor. Dysgerminoma and yolk sac (endodermal sinus) tumor are the most perplexing germ cell tumors, and steroid cell tumor is the most frequent sex cord–stromal tumor in the differential diagnosis with CCC. Metastatic adenocarcinomas of various types in the ovary accounted for a high percentage of the cases rejected by pathological review in our series. Clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features which may be useful in specific differential diagnoses are discussed in this chapter.
KeywordsClear Cell Carcinoma Serous Carcinoma Borderline Tumor Endometrioid Carcinoma Leydig Cell Tumor
- 2.Gilks CB, Bell DA, Huntsman D, Longacre TA et al (2014) Clear cell tumours. In: Kurman RJ, Carcangiu ML, Herrington CS, Young RH (eds) WHO classification of tumours of female reproductive organs. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, pp 33–35Google Scholar