Gross Pathology and Intraoperative Consultation

  • Junzo Kigawa
  • Tsunehisa Kaku
  • Toru Sugiyama
  • Steven G. Silverberg


There is no distinctive gross appearance of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC), which usually is recognizable as malignant but not specifically as CCC. Identification of the tumor grossly as occurring in association with an endometriotic cyst usually narrows the differential diagnosis down to CCC or endometrioid carcinoma as the most likely possibilities. At intraoperative pathologic consultation as well, the diagnosis of malignancy is generally easy to make, but specific clear cell features may be less obvious, and may actually be identified more easily on cytopathologic (tumor scrapes or imprints) than histopathologic (frozen section) preparations.


Freeze Section Ascitic Fluid Clear Cell Carcinoma Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Endometrioid Carcinoma 


  1. 1.
    Heatley MK (2012) A systematic review of papers examining the use of intraoperative frozen section in predicting the final diagnosis of ovarian lesions. Int J Gynecol Pathol 31:111–115CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stewart CL, Brennan BA, Hammond IG et al (2008) Intraoperative assessment of clear cell carcinoma of the ovary. Int J Gynecol Pathol 27:475–482CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junzo Kigawa
    • 1
  • Tsunehisa Kaku
    • 2
  • Toru Sugiyama
    • 3
  • Steven G. Silverberg
    • 4
  1. 1.Matsue City HospitalMatsueJapan
  2. 2.Department of Health SciencesDepartment of Health Sciences Graduate School of Medical SciencesFukuokaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyIwate Medical University School of MedicineMoriokaJapan
  4. 4.Department of PathologyUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations