The Proliferation of Marine Protected Areas Under International Law, European Union Law and Japanese Law
In this chapter, I describe existing international and regional rules on marine protected areas (MPAs), which are established to protect marine living resources and the marine ecosystem, including habitat, fauna and flora. First, I explain the international legal framework, including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and relevant regulations adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO); second, I explain European Union (EU) law, which prescribes MPAs; third, I briefly mention the legal framework for protecting the marine environment in Japan and fourth, I attempt to clarify the limitations of the existing legal framework from an implementation perspective and briefly mention the actions that could be taken for effective protection of the marine environment.
KeywordsEuropean Union Marine Protected Area International Maritime Organization European Union Member State National Jurisdiction
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