Appendix C: Fundamentals of Chemical Equilibrium and Thermodynamics for Radioactive Waste Management

  • Shinya Nagasaki
Part of the An Advanced Course in Nuclear Engineering book series (ACNE)


In thermodynamics, the total energy that the system under consideration has is called internal energy (U). Let w represent the amount of work done to a system and let q represent the amount of energy added to the system in the form of energy. Then, the amount of resultant change in internal energy, ΔU, can be calculated as Eq. (10.1).
$$ \varDelta U=q+w $$


Gibbs Energy Adsorption Site Chemical Equilibrium Coverage Ratio Langmuir Adsorption Isotherm 
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© Authors 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shinya Nagasaki
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Engineering PhysicsMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

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