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P-Wave Superfluidity

  • Takafumi Kita
Part of the Graduate Texts in Physics book series (GTP)

Abstract

Superfluidity in liquid3He was discovered at ultra-low temperatures below around 3 mK by Osheroff, Richardson, and Lee in 1972 (Osheroff et al., Phys Rev Lett 28:885, 1972; Phys Rev Lett 29:920, 1972). The3He atom is composed of two protons, one neutron, and two electrons, each of which carries a spin of magnitude 1∕2, and hence is classified as a fermion according to the spin-statistics theorem. Quantum effects in liquid3He is expected to emerge below TQ ∼ 3 K according to Table  4.1, and the superfluid transition occurs at about 10−3TQ to be attributed to the Cooper-pair condensation. As the atom can be regarded roughly as a rigid sphere, it is clearly impossible for a pair of3He atoms to make up an s-wave bound state that has a high probability of occupying the same position in space. However, they may form a bound state while being separated through a higher ( ≥ 1) channel of expansion ( 8.83) to overcome repulsion. Among various theoretical predictions, superfluidity was soon identified to be associated with p-wave ( = 1) pairing with total spin s = 1. Hence, the bound state has a total of \((2\ell + 1)(2s + 1) = 9\) internal degrees of freedom, which brings unique features to the p-wave superfluidity including two distinct phases A and B observed in the bulk (see Fig. 13.1). Here, we survey the fundamentals of this superfluidity (Leggett, Rev Mod Phys 47:331, 1975; Vollhardt and Wölfle, The superfluid phases of helium 3. Taylor & Francis, London, 1990, p 31).
Fig. 13.1

Schematic T-P phase diagram for3He at ultra-low temperatures [5, 16]

Keywords

Fermi Surface Superfluid Phase Effective Pairing Interaction Quasiparticle Density Anisotropic Fermi Surface 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takafumi Kita
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

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