Responses to External Perturbations

  • Takafumi Kita
Part of the Graduate Texts in Physics book series (GTP)


One basic experimental method to probe condensed matter is to subject the system to small perturbing forces, using for example electromagnetic fields, and measure responses. In this chapter, we first develop a linear-response theory for analyzing the resulting data. We then use it to obtain theoretical formulas for ultrasonic attenuation and nuclear-spin relaxation in s-wave superconductors. It is thereby shown that changes in the excitation spectrum through the superconducting transition can be captured unambiguously by these experiments.


Knight Shift Ultrasonic Attenuation Zeeman Energy Coherence Factor Vacuum Permeability 
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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takafumi Kita
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

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