Amebiasis pp 411-431 | Cite as

Pathology, Pathogenesis, and Experimental Amebiasis

  • Mineko Shibayama
  • José de Jesús Serrano-Luna
  • Jesús Aguirre-García
  • Víctor Tsutsumi


The most important feature of the pathology of human amebiasis is the greatly destructive nature of the anatomical lesions produced by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. Recent advances on the knowledge of biochemistry, immunology, cellular and molecular biology, and genetics of this parasite, added to the use of different in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo models to analyze host–parasite interactions or the production of intestinal and extraintestinal amebic lesions, all have given a better perception of the mechanisms of pathogenesis in amebiasis. The present chapter is divided into three parts: first, a general review of the pathology of human amebiasis; second, a short review of the mechanisms of invasion and production of damage in the host, and third, a review of the different in vivo experimental models currently available to study the mechanisms involved in amebic infection. In reference to pathogenesis, each factor, molecule or gene, or mechanism of target cell damage is reviewed individually in other chapters of this section on “Pathogenesis and Immunity” in the present book. Therefore, the meticulous or probing aspects of the studies are mentioned by each responsible and expert group of researchers. In this review, we mention in general each of the different factors of pathogenesis in amebiasis. The contributions obtained using different techniques and methodologies of experimental models are emphasized, and the subjects that still need to be unraveled to understand how this microscopic parasite has earned its well-deserved “histolytic” name are discussed.


Entamoeba Histolytica Toxic Megacolon Amebic Liver Abscess Amebic Colitis Intestinal Infectious Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Amebic liver abscess


Cysteine proteinase


l-trans-Epoxisuccinil-leucylamido-(4-guanidino butane)






Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor


Guanosine triphosphate






Mucin 2


Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells


Severe combined immunodeficiency


Tumor necrosis factor


Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-dUTP nick-end labeling



The authors gratefully acknowledge Ms. Silvia Galindo-Gómez, Angélica Silva-Olivares, Karla Gil-Becerril, and Claudia Pérez-Galindo for their technical assistance. The present work was partially supported by SEP-CONACyT (México), grant No. 128317 to MS.


  1. 1.
    Gutiérrez G (1987) Epidemiología y control de la amibiasis en México. Arch Invest Med (Mex) 17(Suppl 1):375Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brandt H, Pérez-Tamayo RP (1970) Pathology of human amebiasis. Hum Pathol 1:351–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lesh FA (1975) Massenhafte Entwickelung von Amoben im Dickdarm. Virchows Arch Pathol Anat Klin Med. English translation in: Massive development of amebas in the large intestine. Fedor Aleksandrovich Lesh (Losch). Am J Trop Med Hyg 24:383–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Councilman WT, LaFleur HA (1891) Amoebic dysentery. Johns Hopkins Hosp Rep 2:393Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Martínez-Palomo A (1986) Amebiasis. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aguirre-Garcia J (1970) Peculiaridades histopatológicas de la lesión amibiana. Arch Invest Med (Mex) 1(Suppl 1):147Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ravdin JI (1987) Amebiasis. Human infection by Entamoeba histolytica. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Prathap K, Gilman R (1970) The histopathology of acute intestinal amebiasis. A rectal biopsy study. Am J Pathol 60:229–246PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fournier R (1956) Bibliografía mexicana del absceso hepático amibiano. La Prensa Médica, MexicanaGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Petri WA Jr, Smith RD, Schlesinger PH, Murphy CF, Ravdin JI (1987) Isolation of the galactose-binding lectin that mediates the in vitro adherence of Entamoeba histolytica. J Clin Invest 80:1238–1244. doi: 10.1172/JCI113198 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bracha R, Kobiler D, Mirelman D (1982) Attachment and ingestion of bacteria by trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica. Infect Immun 36:396–406PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Galvan-Moroyoqui JM, Del Carmen Dominguez-Robles M, Franco E, Meza I (2008) The interplay between Entamoeba and enteropathogenic bacteria modulates epithelial cell damage. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2:e266. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000266 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wittner M, Rosenbaum RM (1970) Role of bacteria in modifying virulence of Entamoeba histolytica. Studies of amebae from axenic cultures. Am J Trop Med Hyg 19:755–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kissoon-Singh V, Moreau F, Trusevych E, Chadee K (2013) Entamoeba histolytica exacerbates epithelial tight junction permeability and proinflammatory responses in Muc2(−/−) mice. Am J Pathol 182:852–865. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2012.11.035 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rosales-Encina JL, Meza I, Lopez-De-Leon A, Talamas-Rohana P, Rojkind M (1987) Isolation of a 220-kilodalton protein with lectin properties from a virulent strain of Entamoeba histolytica. J Infect Dis 156:790–797PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rigothier MC, Garcia-Rivera G, Guaderrama M, Orozco E (1992) Purification and functional characterization of the 112 kDa adhesin of Entamoeba histolytica. Arch Med Res 23:239–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee J, Park SJ, Yong TS (2008) Effect of iron on adherence and cytotoxicity of Entamoeba histolytica to CHO cell monolayers. Korean J Parasitol 46:37–40. doi: 10.3347/kjp.2008.46.1.37 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ravdin JI, Moreau F, Sullivan JA, Petri WA Jr, Mandell GL (1988) Relationship of free intracellular calcium to the cytolytic activity of Entamoeba histolytica. Infect Immun 56:1505–1512PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ravdin JI, Sperelakis N, Guerrant RL (1982) Effect of ion channel inhibitors on the cytopathogenicity of Entamoeba histolytica. J Infect Dis 146:335–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gilchrist CA, Petri WA Jr (2009) Using differential gene expression to study Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis. Trends Parasitol 25:124–131. doi: 10.1016/ PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Boettner DR, Petri WA (2005) Entamoeba histolytica activates host cell caspases during contact-dependent cell killing. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 289:175–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bos HJ (1979) Entamoeba histolytica: cytopathogenicity of intact amebae and cell-free extracts; isolation and characterization of an intracellular toxin. Exp Parasitol 47:369–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stanley SL (2001) Pathophysiology of amoebiasis. Trends Parasitol 17:280–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Villalba-Magdaleno JD, Perez-Ishiwara G, Serrano-Luna J, Tsutsumi V, Shibayama M (2011) In vivo programmed cell death of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in a hamster model of amoebic liver abscess. Microbiology 157:1489–1499. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.047183-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Monroy VS, Flores MO, Villalba-Magdaleno JD, Garcia CG, Ishiwara DG (2010) Entamoeba histolytica: differential gene expression during programmed cell death and identification of early pro- and anti-apoptotic signals. Exp Parasitol 126:497–505. doi: 10.1016/j.exppara.2010.05.027 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Leippe M, Ebel S, Schoenberger OL, Horstmann RD, Muller-Eberhard HJ (1991) Pore-forming peptide of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:7659–7663PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bracha R, Nuchamowitz Y, Leippe M, Mirelman D (1999) Antisense inhibition of amoebapore expression in Entamoeba histolytica causes a decrease in amoebic virulence. Mol Microbiol 34:463–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Que X, Reed SL (2000) Cysteine proteinases and the pathogenesis of amebiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev 13:196–206PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Keene WE, Hidalgo ME, Orozco E, McKerrow JH (1990) Entamoeba histolytica: correlation of the cytopathic effect of virulent trophozoites with secretion of a cysteine proteinase. Exp Parasitol 71:199–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Munoz ML, Calderon J, Rojkind M (1982) The collagenase of Entamoeba histolytica. J Exp Med 155:42–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Serrano JJ, de la Garza M, Moreno MA, Tovar R, Leon G, Tsutsumi V, Munoz ML (1994) Entamoeba histolytica: electron-dense granule secretion, collagenase activity and virulence are altered in the cytoskeleton mutant BG-3. Mol Microbiol 11:787–792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Loftus B, Anderson I, Davies R, Alsmark UC, Samuelson J, Amedeo P, Roncaglia P, Berriman M, Hirt RP, Mann BJ, Nozaki T, Suh B, Pop M, Duchene M, Ackers J, Tannich E, Leippe M, Hofer M, Bruchhaus I, Willhoeft U, Bhattacharya A, Chillingworth T, Churcher C, Hance Z, Harris B, Harris D, Jagels K, Moule S, Mungall K, Ormond D, Squares R, Whitehead S, Quail MA, Rabbinowitsch E, Norbertczak H, Price C, Wang Z, Guillen N, Gilchrist C, Stroup SE, Bhattacharya S, Lohia A, Foster PG, Sicheritz-Ponten T, Weber C, Singh U, Mukherjee C, El-Sayed NM, Petri WA Jr, Clark CG, Embley TM, Barrell B, Fraser CM, Hall N (2005) The genome of the protist parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Nature (Lond) 433:865–868. doi: 10.1038/nature03291 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Loftus BJ, Hall N (2005) Entamoeba: still more to be learned from the genome. Trends Parasitol 21:453. doi: 10.1016/ PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Moncada D, Keller K, Ankri S, Mirelman D, Chadee K (2006) Antisense inhibition of Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteases inhibits colonic mucus degradation. Gastroenterology 130:721–730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ankri S, Stolarsky T, Mirelman D (1998) Antisense inhibition of expression of cysteine proteinases does not affect Entamoeba histolytica cytopathic or haemolytic activity but inhibits phagocytosis. Mol Microbiol 28:777–785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ankri S, Stolarsky T, Bracha R, Padilla-Vaca F, Mirelman D (1999) Antisense inhibition of expression of cysteine proteinases affects Entamoeba histolytica-induced formation of liver abscess in hamsters. Infect Immun 67:421–422PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Eckmann L, Reed SL, Smith JR, Kagnoff MF (1995) Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites induce an inflammatory cytokine response by cultured human cells through the paracrine action of cytolytically released interleukin-1 alpha. J Clin Invest 96:1269–1279. doi: 10.1172/JCI118161 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Reed SL, Ember JA, Herdman DS, DiScipio RG, Hugli TE, Gigli I (1995) The extracellular neutral cysteine proteinase of Entamoeba histolytica degrades anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. J Immunol 155:266–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hou Y, Mortimer L, Chadee K (2010) Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase 5 binds integrin on colonic cells and stimulates NFkappaB-mediated pro-inflammatory responses. J Biol Chem 285:35497–35504. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.066035 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tsutsumi V, Ramirez-Rosales A, Lanz-Mendoza H, Shibayama M, Chavez B, Rangel-Lopez E, Martinez-Palomo A (1992) Entamoeba histolytica: erythrophagocytosis, collagenolysis, and liver abscess production as virulence markers. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86:170–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Davis PH, Schulze J, Stanley SL Jr (2007) Transcriptomic comparison of two Entamoeba histolytica strains with defined virulence phenotypes identifies new virulence factor candidates and key differences in the expression patterns of cysteine proteases, lectin light chains, and calmodulin. Mol Biochem Parasitol 151:118–128. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2006.10.014 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tillack M, Biller L, Irmer H, Freitas M, Gomes MA, Tannich E, Bruchhaus I (2007) The Entamoeba histolytica genome: primary structure and expression of proteolytic enzymes. BMC Genomics 8:170. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-8-170 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Diamond LS, Harlow DR, Cunnick CC (1978) A new medium for the axenic cultivation of Entamoeba histolytica and other Entamoeba. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 72:431–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jones WR (1946) The experimental infection of rats with Entamoeba histolytica; with a method for evaluating the anti-amoebic properties of new compounds. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 40:130–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Neal RA (1951) Some observations on the variation of virulence and response to chemotherapy of strains of Entamoeba histolytica in rats. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 44:439–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Anaya-Velazquez F, Martinez-Palomo A, Tsutsumi V, Gonzalez-Robles A (1985) Intestinal invasive amebiasis: an experimental model in rodents using axenic or monoxenic strains of Entamoeba histolytica. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34:723–730PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Diamond LS, Phillips BP, Bartgis IL (1974) The clawed jird (Meriones unguiculatus) as an experimental animal for the study of hepatic amebiasis. Arch Invest Med (Mex) 5(suppl 2):465–470Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chadee K, Meerovitch E (1985) The pathology of experimentally induced cecal amebiasis in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Liver changes and amebic liver abscess formation. Am J Pathol 119:485–494PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shibayama M, Navarro-Garcia F, Lopez-Revilla R, Martinez-Palomo A, Tsutsumi V (1997) In vivo and in vitro experimental intestinal amebiasis in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Parasitol Res 83:170–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ghadirian E, Kongshavn PA (1984) Genetic control of susceptibility of mice to infection with E. histolytica. Parasite Immunol 6:349–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Owen DG (1987) Entamoeba histolytica in inbred mice: evidence of liver involvement. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 81:617–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ghosh PK, Mancilla R, Ortiz-Ortiz L (1994) Intestinal amebiasis: histopathologic features in experimentally infected mice. Arch Med Res 25:297–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Chauhan MS, Das SR (1987) Simultaneous caecal and liver infections in hamster, mouse and guinea pigs by oral feeding on Entamoeba histolytica cysts. Curr Sci 56:1223–1224Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Owen DG (1990) Gnotobiotic, athymic mice; a possible system for the study of the role of bacteria in human amoebiasis. Lab Anim 24:353–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ray DK, Chatterjee DK (1981) Caecal amoebiasis in albino mice: an experimental model. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 75:255–256Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rivero-Nava L, Aguirre-Garcia J, Shibayama-Salas M, Hernandez-Pando R, Tsutsumi V, Calderon J (2002) Entamoeba histolytica: acute granulomatous intestinal lesions in normal and neutrophil-depleted mice. Exp Parasitol 101:183–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Houpt ER, Glembocki DJ, Obrig TG, Moskaluk CA, Lockhart LA, Wright RL, Seaner RM, Keepers TR, Wilkins TD, Petri WA Jr (2002) The mouse model of amebic colitis reveals mouse strain susceptibility to infection and exacerbation of disease by CD4+ T cells. J Immunol 169:4496–4503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Asgharpour A, Gilchrist C, Baba D, Hamano S, Houpt E (2005) Resistance to intestinal Entamoeba histolytica infection is conferred by innate immunity and Gr-1+ cells. Infect Immun 73:4522–4529. doi: 10.1128/IAI.73.8.4522-4529.2005 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Seydel KB, Li E, Swanson PE, Stanley SL Jr (1997) Human intestinal epithelial cells produce proinflammatory cytokines in response to infection in a SCID mouse-human intestinal xenograft model of amebiasis. Infect Immun 65:1631–1639PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bansal D, Ave P, Kerneis S, Frileux P, Boche O, Baglin AC (2009) An ex-vivo human intestinal model to study Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e551PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Girard-Misguich F, Delgado-Ortega M, Berthon P, Rossignol C, Larcher T, Bruel T, Guibon R, Guillen N, Meurens F (2012) Porcine colon explants in the study of innate immune response to Entamoeba histolytica. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 145:611–617. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.01.002 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Girard-Misguich F, Cognie J, Delgado-Ortega M, Berthon P, Rossignol C, Larcher T, Melo S, Bruel T, Guibon R, Cherel Y, Sarradin P, Salmon H, Guillen N, Meurens F (2011) Towards the establishment of a porcine model to study human amebiasis. PLoS One 6:e28795PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Reinertson JW, Thompson PE (1951) Experimental amebic hepatitis in hamsters. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 76:518–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Tanimoto M, Sepúlveda B, Vázquez JA (1971) Lesiones producidas en el hígado de hámsteres por inoculación de E. histolytica cultivada en medio axénico. Arch Invest Med (Mex) 2(suppl 1):275–284Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Tsutsumi V, Mena-Lopez R, Anaya-Velazquez F, Martinez-Palomo A (1984) Cellular bases of experimental amebic liver abscess formation. Am J Pathol 117:81–91PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tsutsumi V, Martinez-Palomo A (1988) Inflammatory reaction in experimental hepatic amebiasis. An ultrastructural study. Am J Pathol 130:112–119PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chadee K, Meerovitch E (1984) The pathogenesis of experimentally induced amebic liver abscess in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Am J Pathol 117:71–80PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zhang T, Stanley SL Jr (1994) Protection of gerbils from amebic liver abscess by immunization with a recombinant protein derived from the 170-kilodalton surface adhesin of Entamoeba histolytica. Infect Immun 62:2605–2608PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Shibayama M, Campos-Rodriguez R, Ramirez-Rosales A, Flores-Romo L, Espinosa-Cantellano M, Martinez-Palomo A, Tsutsumi V (1998) Entamoeba histolytica: liver invasion and abscess production by intraperitoneal inoculation of trophozoites in hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus. Exp Parasitol 88:20–27. doi: 10.1006/expr.1998.4218 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Cieslak TJ, Robb ML, Drabick CJ, Fischer GW (1992) Catheter-associated sepsis caused by Ochrobactrum anthropi: report of a case and review of related nonfermentative bacteria. Clin Infect Dis 14:902–907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Velazquez C, Shibayama-Salas M, Aguirre-Garcia J, Tsutsumi V, Calderón J (1998) Role of neutrophils in innate resistance to Entamoeba histolytica liver infection in mice. Parasite Immunol 20:255–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Pacheco-Yepez J, Campos-Rodriguez R, Shibayama M, Ventura-Juarez J, Serrano-Luna J, Tsutsumi V (2001) Entamoeba histolytica: production of nitric oxide and in situ activity of NADPH diaphorase in amebic liver abscess of hamsters. Parasitol Res 87:49–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Stanley SL Jr (2003) Amoebiasis. Lancet 361:1025–1034. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12830-9 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Olivos-Garcia A, Gonzalez-Canto A, Lopez-Vancell R, Garcia de Leon M del C, Tello E, Nequiz-Avendano M, Montfort I, Perez-Tamayo R (2003) Amebic cysteine proteinase 2 (EhCP2) plays either a minor or no role in tissue damage in acute experimental amebic liver abscess in hamsters. Parasitol Res 90:212–220. doi: 10.1007/s00436-002-0763-8 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Espinosa-Cantellano M, Castañón-Gutiérrez G, Martínez-Palomo A (1997) In vivo pathogenesis of Entamoeba dispar. Arch Med Res 28:204–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Dolabella SS, Serrano-Luna J, Navarro-Garcia F, Cerritos R, Ximenez C, Galvan-Moroyoqui JM, Silva EF, Tsutsumi V, Shibayama M (2012) Amoebic liver abscess production by Entamoeba dispar. Ann Hepatol 11:107–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Shibayama M, Dolabella SS, Silva EF, Tsutsumi V (2007) A Brazilian species of Entamoeba dispar (ADO) produces amoebic liver abscess in hamsters. Ann Hepatol 6:117–118PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mineko Shibayama
    • 1
  • José de Jesús Serrano-Luna
    • 2
  • Jesús Aguirre-García
    • 3
  • Víctor Tsutsumi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Infectomics and Molecular PathogenesisCenter for Research and Advanced Studies, National Polytechnic Institute, (CINVESTAV-IPN)Mexico CityMexico
  2. 2.Department of Cell BiologyCenter for Research and Advanced Studies, National Polytechnic Institute, (CINVESTAV-IPN)Mexico CityMexico
  3. 3.Laboratory of PathologyMIG HospitalMexico CityMexico

Personalised recommendations