Health and Environmental Risks Related to Water Supply and Sanitation in the Socio-environment of Rural Bangladesh

  • Akira SakaiEmail author
  • Kunio Takahashi
  • Maiko Sakamoto
  • Yoshimi Hagihara
  • Kiyoko Hagihara
Part of the New Frontiers in Regional Science: Asian Perspectives book series (NFRSASIPER, volume 4)


Ensuring safe water supply and proper sanitation is a basic requirement for maintaining public health and safety, as well as the foundation of sustainable development. Although arsenic contamination mitigation from tube wells is an urgent issue related to public health in Bangladesh, a significant portion of the population still subsists on arsenic contaminated water. One of the primary reasons for this is the difficulty involved in accessing safe water, even in areas where arsenic mitigation facilities exist. As for sanitation, although coverage of sanitary facilities has been increasing in the country, existing toilets have various disadvantages; one of which is that improper human excreta management is causing surface water pollution, hindering the use of this water as an alternative drinking water source. To maintain soil quality and food productivity in the future, it is expected that human excreta will be used to fertilize agricultural land. In this chapter, socio-environmental problems and the risks related to water supply and sanitation will be identified and their interrelationships will be discussed. Additionally, the factors considered during the selection of technical options aimed at reducing risks will be discussed based on the authors’ sanitation improvement-related field activities.


Arsenic contamination Safe watersupply Sanitation Socio-environment 



The authors would like to express deep gratitude to Mr. Tofayel Ahmed, a local member of the Japan Association of Drainage and Environment (JADE), a Japanese NGO, for his meaningful contributions during authors’ field survey. Basailbogh Village is one of the JADE project sites that are being developed in collaboration with the Society for People’s Action in Change and Equity (SPACE), a local NGO. The authors would also like to thank Mr. Azahar Ali Plamanik, the executive director of SPACE, his staff, and the residents of Basailbogh for their cooperation.


  1. Sakai, A., Takahashi, K., Ahmed, T., Sakamoto, M., & Hagihara, Y. (2007a). Issues on safe water supply and sanitation and local people’s welfare in a rural Bangladesh. In International conference on water & flood management, 12–14 March 2007 (Vol. 2, pp. 537–544). Dhaka, Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  2. Sakai, A. et al. (2007b). Challenges to overcome the problems related with sanitation in rural area of Bangladesh. Paper presented to the first annual conference, Bangladesh Regional Science Association, 16–17 March 2007. Dhaka.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akira Sakai
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kunio Takahashi
    • 2
  • Maiko Sakamoto
    • 3
  • Yoshimi Hagihara
    • 4
  • Kiyoko Hagihara
    • 5
  1. 1.University of Marketing and Distribution SciencesKobeJapan
  2. 2.Japan Association of Drainage and EnvironmentTokyoJapan
  3. 3.University of TokyoKashiwaJapan
  4. 4.Kyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  5. 5.School of SociologyBukkyo UniversityKyotoJapan

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