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Off-Site Response

  • Atomic Energy Society of Japan
Chapter

Abstract

The off-site response at the accident was one of the key elements of the defence in depth described in the plant design. In Japan, off-site accident responses were based on the assumption of the 1999 JCO accident as the worst accident and nuclear disaster drills are annually implemented. However, off-site support for on-site severe accident measures was scarcely considered. In principle, when an accident occurs, the emergency organization outside the site must assume the role of the fourth stage of defence in depth: “to mitigate the consequences of the accident”. In other words, the off-site organization must offer human and material support for measures taken on-site to mitigate the consequences of the accident. Consequently, off-site accident responses by the Government Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters and relevant organs were extremely confused. This confusion was exacerbated by the breakdown in the information communication function, due to the impact of the complex disaster. At an early stage, the relevant teams could not communicate with each other at all, and coordination among them was not secured, which caused many problems. For example, during the evacuation, many residents requiring support became victims. Consequently, as the evacuation was conducted before a large emission of radioactive materials, the direct influence of radioactivity could be prevented. However, the core meltdown at Units 1–3 in the Fukushima Daiichi NPP could not be prevented; nor could the radioactive materials emitted from the nuclear power reactors be prevented from polluting the environment and having a profound impact on the society and economy. There were many lessons learned and problems to be solved.

Keywords

Environment contamination Equipment/technical support Food safety Integrated management Off-site response Residents’ evacuation 

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Copyright information

© Atomic Energy Society of Japan 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Atomic Energy Society of Japan
    • 1
  1. 1.TokyoJapan

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