Advertisement

Impacts of Disasters and Disaster Risk Management in Malaysia: The Case of Floods

  • Ngai Weng Chan
Chapter
Part of the Risk, Governance and Society book series (RISKGOSO, volume 18)

Abstract

Malaysia lies in a geographically stable region, relatively free from natural disasters, but is affected by flooding, landslides, haze and other man-made disasters. Disaster management in Malaysia is traditionally based almost entirely on a government-centric top-down approach. Because Malaysia’s main risk comes from flooding, national disaster mitigation institutions largely target monsoon flooding. However, this mechanism is less than effective and should be re-modeled into something more pro-active. The Drainage and Irrigation Department (DID) is responsible for flood management. However, as an engineering-based organization, DID’s approach is largely focused on structural measures in controlling floods and lacks a holistic approach towards flood management. There is also a need for greater stakeholder participation, especially from NGOs at all levels in the disaster cycle. Malaysia should build capacity for NGOs, local communities and disaster victims. Disaster management mechanisms should also adopt more non-structural measures, bring in state-of-the-art technology and cooperate internationally with other countries for addressing transboundary disasters.

Keywords

Disaster Management Flood Hazard Flood Damage Flood Disaster Flood Forecast 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author gratefully acknowledges funding from the Long Term Research Grant Scheme (LRGS) “Project 5 – Economic Model for Flood Disaster Impact Analysis” and to the Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA) for funding the project “Economic and Welfare Impacts of Disasters in East Asia and Policy Responses”.

References

  1. Ab. Ghani, A., Chang, C. K., Leow, C. S., & Zakaria, N. A. (2012). Sungai Pahang digital flood mapping: 2007 flood. International Journal of River Basin Management, 1–10.Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad, S., & Hashim, N. M. (2006). Kebakaran Hutan Dan Isu Pencemaran Udara Di Malaysia: Kes Jerebu Pada Ogos 2005. e-BANGI Jurnal Sains Sosial dan Kemanusiaan, 1(1), 1–19.Google Scholar
  3. Aldrich, D. P. (2010). Fixing recovery: Social capital in post-crisis resilience. Journal of Homeland Security. http://works.bepress.com/daniel_aldrich/7. Accessed 28 June 2012.
  4. Alexander, D. (1993). Natural disasters. London: UCL.Google Scholar
  5. Bernama. (2010a). Floods: Perak sends clean water supply to Kedah, Perlis, Bernama [online]. 5 November 2010. http://www.bernama.com.my/bernama/v5/newsindex.php?id=541097. Accessed 5 November 2010.
  6. Bernama. (2010b). Kedah government slow in helping flood victims – Chor, Bernama [online]. 5 November 2010. http://www.bernama.com/bernama/v5/newsgeneral.php?id=541124. Accessed 5 November 2010.
  7. Bernama. (2010c). For farmers affected by floods In Kedah, Perlis, Bernama [online]. 6 November 2010. http://www.bernama.com/bernama/v5/newsindex.php?id=541292. Accessed 6 November 2010.
  8. Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., Davis, I., & Wisner, B. (1994). At risk: Natural hazards, peoples’ vulnerability and disasters. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Boin, A., McConnell, A., Hart, P., & Preston, T. (2009). Leadership style, crisis response and blame managment: The case of Hurrican Katrina. Public Administration, 88(3), 706–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chan, N. W. (1995). A Contextual analysis of flood hazard management in Peninsular Malaysia. UK: Ph.D. Middlesex University.Google Scholar
  11. Chan, N. W. (1996). Risk, exposure and vulnerability to flood hazards in a rapidly developing country: The case of Peninsular Malaysia. Akademika, 49, 107–136.Google Scholar
  12. Chan, N. W. (1997a). Increasing flood risk in Malaysia: Causes and solutions. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 6(2), 72–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chan, N. W. (1997b). Institutional arrangements for flood hazards in Malaysia: An evaluation using the criteria approach. Disasters, 21(3), 206–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chan, N. W. (1997c). Warnings in the context of flood hazard management in Malaysia. In J. W. Handmer (Ed.), Flood warning: Issues and practice in total system design (pp. 115–132). London: Flood Hazard Research Centre.Google Scholar
  15. Chan, N. W. (1998a). Responding to landslide hazards in rapidly developing Malaysia: A case of economics versus environmental protection. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 7(1), 14–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chan, N. W. (1998b). Chapter 54 - Flash and monsoon flooding. In S. Sham (Ed.), The encyclopedia of Malaysia - Volume I environment (pp. 112–113). Editions Didier Millet: Singapore.Google Scholar
  17. Chan, N. W. (2000). Chapter 29 – Reducing flood hazard exposure and vulnerability in Peninsular Malaysia. In D. J. Parker (Ed.), Floods volume II (pp. 19–30). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Chan, N. W. (2003). Using wetlands as natural forms of flood control. In A. Ali, C. S. Md Rawi, M. Mansor, R. Nakamura, S. Ramakrishna, & T. Mudkur (Eds.), The Asian wetlands: bringing partnerships into good wetland practices. Penang: Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment, Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Ramsar Center Japan and Wetlands International Asia Pacific. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia (pp. 909–919), Part VII: Climate change.Google Scholar
  19. Chan, N. W. (2009). Socio-economic effects of flood losses incurred by residential and commercial properties due to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Northern Peninsular Malaysia, Paper presented at the South China Sea Tsunami Workshop 3. Penang: Universiti Sains Malaysia, 3–5 November 2009.Google Scholar
  20. Chan, N. W. (2011). Addressing flood hazards via environmental humanities in Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Environmental Management, 12(2), 11–22.Google Scholar
  21. Chan, N. W., Ibrahim, A. L., Kung, H. T., & Liu, P. S. (2002a). Employing nature to combat floods: Some experiences from Malaysia. In J. B. Ali, A. Rahman, Z. Mohamed, & N. Zainuddin (Eds.), Disaster management: Strengthening the national security capabilities (pp. 143–158). Alor Setar: Penerbit Ustara.Google Scholar
  22. Chan, N. W., Ibrahim, A. L., Yusoff, R., & Ismail, N. A. (2002b). The significance of stress and other intangible losses during major flood disasters in Malaysia. In J. Ali, B. A. Rahman, Z. Mohamed, & N. Zainuddin (Eds.), Disaster management: Strengthening the national security capabilities (pp. 159–176). Alor Setar: Penerbit Ustara.Google Scholar
  23. Chan, N. W., & Parker, D. J. (1996). Response to dynamic flood hazard factors in Peninsular Malaysia. The Geographical Journal, 162(3), 313–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chan, N. W., & Parker, D. J. (1997). Aspek-Aspek Sosio-Ekonomi Berkaitan Dengan Bahaya Dan Bencana Banjir Di Semenanjung Malaysia. In M. R. Agus & F. N. Sidin (Eds.), Proceedings of Persidangan Kebangsaan Kajian Sains Sosial, 29–30 September 1997 (pp. 294–311). Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya.Google Scholar
  25. Chia, C. W. (2004). Managing flood problems in Malaysia. The Ingenieur Bulletin. 22, June-August 2004. Kuala Lumpur: Board of Engineers Malaysia (pp. 38–43). http://www.bem.org.my/publication/juneaug04/F(Flood)(38-43).pdf. Accessed 16 May 2012.
  26. Chieh, Y. H. (2012). Noh Omar blames Nakatan for Selangor floods, Malaysian Must Know The Truth Blog Spot [online]. 1 April 2012. http://malaysiansmustknowthetruth.blogspot.com/2012/03/noh-omar-blames-pakatan-for-selangor.html. Accessed 16 May 2012.
  27. Chooi, C. (2012). Mix of politics with business fuelled economic woes, says Ku li, Malaysian Insider [online]. 16 February 2012. http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/malaysia/article/mix-of-politics-with-business-fuelled-economic-woes-says-ku-li/. Accessed 16 May 2012.
  28. Drainage and Irrigation Department. (1973). Estimation of design rainstorm, Hydrological Procedures. 1, Kuala Lumpur December 1973.Google Scholar
  29. Drainage and Irrigation Department. (1974). Rational method of flood estimation for rural catchments in Peninsular Malaysia, Hydrological Procedures. 5, Kuala Lumpur 1974.Google Scholar
  30. Drainage and Irrigation Department. (1976). Flood estimation for urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia, Hydrological Procedures. 16, 1976.Google Scholar
  31. Drainage and Irrigation Department. (1988). Flood forecasting and warning systems in Malaysia. Unpublished paper of the hydrological section, Drainage and Irrigation Department, Ampang Branch.Google Scholar
  32. Foong, P. Y. (2010). Double-tracking project worsened flood situation in Kedah – Chor, The Star [online]. 5 November 2010. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2010/11/5/nation/20101105123917&sec=nation. Accessed 5 November 2010.
  33. Green, C. H., Parker, D. J., & Emery, P. J. (1983). The real costs of flooding to households: The intangible costs, Geography and Planning Paper 12. Middlesex Polytechnic, Enfield.Google Scholar
  34. Green, C. H., Turnstall, S. M., Emery, J. P., & Bossman-Aggrey, P. (1988). Evaluating the non-monetary impacts of flooding. Flood Hazard Research Centre, Publication 123, Enfield.Google Scholar
  35. Handmer, J. W., & Parker, D. J. (1991). British disaster planning and management: An initial assessment. Flood Hazard Research Centre, Publication 202, Enfield.Google Scholar
  36. Hewitt, K. (Ed.). (1983). Interpretations of calamity, the risk & hazard series: 1. London: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  37. Hossain, L., & Kuti, M. (2010). Disaster response preparedness coordination through social networks. Disasters, 34(3), 755–786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hussaini, Hj. A. (2007). Flood and drought management in Malaysia, Speech Given on 21 June 2007. Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment.Google Scholar
  39. Jamaluddin, M. J. (1985). Flash flood problems and human responses to the flash flood hazard in Kuala Lumpur area. Akademika, 26, 45–62.Google Scholar
  40. Japan International Cooperation Agency. (1982). National water resources study. Unpublished report to the Government of Malaysia.Google Scholar
  41. Japan International Cooperation Agency. (1989). Study on flood mitigation of the Klang river basin. Unpublished report to the Government of Malaysia.Google Scholar
  42. Japan International Cooperation Agency. (1991). The study of flood mitigation and drainage in Penang Island. Unpublished Supporting Report, Japan International Cooperation Agency for the Government of Malaysia.Google Scholar
  43. Jones, D. K. C. (1991). Environmental hazards. In R. J. Bennett & R. C. Estall (Eds.), Global change and challenge (pp. 27–56). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. Julien, P. Y., Ab, N. A., Ghani, R. A., & Chang, C. K. (2010). Case study: Flood mitigation of the Muda River, Malaysia. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 136(4), 251–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kunii, O., Kanagawa, S., Yajima, I., Hisamatsu, Y., Yamamura, S., Amagai, T., et al. (2002). The 1997 haze disaster in Indonesia: Its air quality and health effects. Archives of Environmental Health, 57(1), 16–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lawal, B., Shattri, M., Mahmud, A. R., & Ghazali, A. H. (2006). Comprehensive planning and the role of SDSS in flood disaster management in Malaysia. Disaster Prevention and Management, 15(2), 233–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Leigh, C., & Low, K. S. (1983). Attitudes and adjustments to flood hazard in a mixed ethnic community in Malacca Town, Peninsular Malaysia. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 4(1), 40–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lim, T. K. (1988). Malaysian rivers and floods. Paper presented at the Seminar Tebatan Banjir, Organised by the Jabatan Parit dan Tali Air Malaysia and Japan International Cooperation Agency, Kuala Lumpur, 14–17 November.Google Scholar
  49. New Straits Times. (2010). 33,000 in shelters: Flood situation very bad in Kedah, Precarious in Perlis, New Straits Times [online], 4 November 2010. http://www.nst.com.my/nst/articles/33_000inshelters/Article/. Accessed 5 November 2010.
  50. Parker, D. J. (1992). The mismanagement of hazards. In D. J. Parker & J. W. Handmer (Eds.), Hazard management and emergency planning: Perspectives on Britain. London: James and James.Google Scholar
  51. Parker, D. J., Green, C. H., & Thompson, P. M. (1987). Urban flood protection benefits – A project appraisal guide. Aldershot: Gower Technical Press.Google Scholar
  52. Parker, D. J., Islam, N., & Chan, N. W. (1997). Chapter 3: Reducing vulnerability following flood disaster: Issues and practices. In A. Awotona (Ed.), Reconstruction after disaster (pp. 23–44). London: Avebury.Google Scholar
  53. Pearce, D. W. (1976). Environmental economics. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  54. Periasamy, T. (2011). Slope failure hazards: A spatial and temporal study of the Klang valley region, Peninsular Malaysia. Ph. D., University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  55. Sham, S. (1973). The 1967 flood in Kelantan, West Malaysia. Akademika, 3, 1–14.Google Scholar
  56. Syed Muhammad, H., & Binnie Sdn. Bhd. (1988). Feasibility study on flood mitigation and agricultural development projects in the Krian River Basin. Unpublished Report to the Malaysian Government.Google Scholar
  57. The Star. (2007). Singapore: We’re not to blame for johor floods, The Star [online]. 2 February 2007. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2007/2/2/nation/16758525&sec=nation.
  58. The Star. (2010a). Do not ignore plight of flood victims, says Muhyiddin, The Star [online]. 6 November 2010. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2010/11/6/nation/20101106140013&sec=nation. Accessed 6 November 2010.
  59. The Star. (2010b). Kedah Sultan sad over flood, urges everyone to work together, The Star [online]. 6 November 2010. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2010/11/6/nation/20101106173915&sec=nation. Accessed 6 November 2010.
  60. The Star. (2010c). Kedah and Perlis scramble to send aid to 19,000 hit by floodwaters, The Star [online]. 3 November 2010. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2010/11/3/nation/7352766&sec=nation. Accessed 5 November 2010.
  61. The Star. (2010d). Alor Setar airport remains closed, The Star [online]. 4 November 2010. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2010/11/4/nation/7362218&sec=nation. Accessed 5 November 2010.
  62. The Star. (2011). Terrible twins’ La Nina and monsoon to hit KL and Selangor, The Star [online]. 6 December 2011. http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2011/12/6/nation/10040911&sec=nation. Accessed March 29, 2012.
  63. Thomas, W. I., & Thomas, D. S. (1928). The child in America: Behavior problems and programs. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  64. Tneh, D. C. E. (2011). Education and politics in Malaysia, Malaysian Insider [online]. 26 April 2011. http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/breakingviews/article/education-and-politics-in-malaysia-david-c.e.-tneh/. Accessed 16 May 2012.
  65. Torry, W. I. (1979). Anthropological studies in hazardous environments: Past trends and new horizons. Current Anthropology, 20, 517–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Turner, B. A. (1978). Man-made disasters. London: Wykeham Publications.Google Scholar
  67. Ujang, Z. (2010). Water mismanagement? The politics of polluted urban rivers, Paper Presented at the Merdeka Lecture Series. Penang: Universiti Sains Malaysia, 22 October 2010.Google Scholar
  68. Umar. (2007). Disaster mitigation support and management in Malaysia. Malaysian Meteorological Department [Online]. www.met.gov.my/files/ClimateChange2007/session1a/. Accessed 16 May 2012.
  69. Varley, A. (Ed.). (1994). Disasters, development and environment. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  70. Volker, A. (1971). Flood control (West Malaysia). UNESCO Archives, 10–24 March 1971.Google Scholar
  71. Wadell, E. (1983). Coping with frosts, governments and disaster experts: Some reflections based on a new guinea experience and a perusal of the relevant literature. In K. Hewitt (Ed.), Interpretations of calamity, the risks and hazard series: 1 (pp. 33–43). Winchester: Allen & Unwin Inc.Google Scholar
  72. Winchester, P. (1992). Power, choice and vulnerability: A case study in disaster mismanagement in South India. London: James & James Science Publishers Ltd.Google Scholar
  73. Winstedt, R. O. (1927). The great flood 1926. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, V(II), 295–309.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universiti Sains MalaysiaPulau PinangMalaysia

Personalised recommendations