Advertisement

Cytoskeletons

  • Ichirou Karahara
Chapter

Abstract

The term ‘cytoskeleton’ might give a static impression given the inclusion of “skeleton,” a notion that is enforced by the fact that plant cells do not appear to be very active when compared to animal cells. However, the skeletal feature of the cytoskeleton function is only one component of its reality. When a plant cell forms and alters its shape, the cytoskeleton is intimately involved. Additionally, plant cells actively relocate some cellular components while keeping others in place. The cytoskeleton itself is a filamentous network of protein polymers comprised of three structural components: microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments. The former two play major roles in cellular rearrangements, and their fundamental structures are conserved in animals and plants. It is particularly interesting to take a look at the organization of plant mitotic structures from a phylogenetic viewpoint. The plant cytoskeleton also has unique functions and features, many of which are outlined in this chapter.

Keywords

Actin Filament Brown Alga Allium Cepa Spindle Pole Body Preprophase Band 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Chapter References

  1. 1.
    Mineyuki Y (2007) Plant microtubule studies: past and present. J Plant Res 120:45–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mineyuki Y, Iida H, Anraku Y (1994) Loss of microtubules in the interphase cells of onion (Allium cepa L.) root tips from the cell cortex and their appearance in the cytoplasm after treatment with cycloheximide. Plant Physiol 104:281–284PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nogami A, Suzaki T, Shigenaka Y, Nagahama Y, Mineyuki Y (1996) Effects of cycloheximide on preprophase bands and prophase spindles in onion (Allium cepa L.) root tip cells. Protoplasma 192:109–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Murata T, Sonobe S, Baskin TI, Hyodo S, Hasezawa S, Nagata T, Horio T, Hasebe M (2005) Microtubule-dependent microtubule nucleation based on recruitment of γ-tubulin in higher plants. Nat Cell Biol 7:961–968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Petry S, Groen AC, Ishihara K, Mitchison TJ, Vale RD (2013) Branching microtubule nucleation in Xenopus egg extracts mediated by augmin and TPX2. Cell 152:768–777PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kamasaki T, O’Toole E, Kita S, Osumi M, Usukura J, McIntosh JR, Goshima G (2013) Augmin-dependent microtubule nucleation at microtubule walls in the spindle. J Cell Biol 202:25–33PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Karahara I, Kang BH (2014) High-pressure freezing and low-temperature processing of plant tissue samples for electron microscopy. Methods Mol Biol 1080:147–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Murata T, Karahara I, Kozuka T, Giddings TH Jr, Staehelin LA, Mineyuki Y (2002) Improved method for visualizing coated pits, microfilaments, and microtubules in cryofixed and freeze-substituted plant cells. J Electron Microsc 51:133–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Karahara I, Suda J, Tahara H, Yokota E, Shimmen T, Misaki K, Yonemura S, Staehelin A, Mineyuki Y (2009) The preprophase band is a localized center of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in late prophase cells of the onion cotyledon epidermis. Plant J 57:819–831PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Karahara I, Suda J, Staehelin LA, Mineyuki Y (2009) Quantitative analysis of vesicles in the preprophase band by electron tomography. Cytologia 74:113–114Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mineyuki Y, Suda J, Karahara I (2004) Electron tomography. Plant Morphol 16:21–30 (Japanese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mineyuki Y (2013) Electron tomography and structure of plant cell framework. In: IIRS (eds) Structure and function of life analyzed by 3D imaging. Asakura Publishing Co. Ltd., Tokyo, pp 51–60. ISBN 978-4-254-17157-0 C3045 (Japanese)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shimamura M, Brown RC, Lemmon BE, Akashi T, Mizuno K, Nishihara N, Tomizawa KI, Yoshimoto K, Deguchi H, Hosoya H, Horio T, Mineyuki Y (2004) γ-Tubulin in basal land plants: characterization, localization, and implication in the evolution of acentriolar microtubule organizing centers. Plant Cell 16:45–59PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shimamura M (2004) Monoplastidic cell in lower land plants. Plant Morphol 16:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Motomura T, Nagasato C, Kimura K (2010) Cytoplasmic inheritance of organelles in brown algae. J Plant Res 123:185–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nagasato C, Motomura T, Ichimura T (1998) Selective disappearance of maternal centrioles after fertilization in the anisogamous brown alga Cutleria cylindrica (Cutleriales, Phaeophyceae): paternal inheritance of centrioles is universal in the brown alga. Phycol Res 46:191–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Motomura T (1994) Electron and immunofluorescence microscopy on the fertilization of Fucus distichus (Fucales, Phaeophyceae). Protoplasma 178:97–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nagasato C, Motomura T (2002) Ultrastructural study on mitosis and cytokinesis in Scytosiphon lomentaria zygotes (Scytosiphonales, Phaeophyceae) by freeze-substitution. Protoplasma 219:140–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yubuki N, Leander BS (2011) Reconciling the bizarre inheritance of microtubules in complex (euglenid) microeukaryotes. Protoplasma 249:859–869PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jaspersen SL, Winey M (2004) The budding yeast spindle pole body: structure, duplication, and function. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 20:1–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hirata A (2010) Meiosis I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by rapid-freeze electron microscopy. Cytologia 75:221–222 (Technical note)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tanaka I, Kitazume C, Ito M (1987) The isolation and culture of lily pollen protoplasts. Plant Sci 50:205–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tanaka I, Wakabayashi T (1992) Organization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton preceding pollen germination: an analysis using cultured pollen protoplasts of Lilium longiflorum. Planta 186:473–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Riedl J, Crevenna AH, Kessenbrock K, Yu JH, Neukirchen D, Bista M, Bradke F, Jenne D, Holak TA, Werb Z, Sixt M, Wedlich-Sordner R (2008) Lifeact: a versatile marker to visualize F-actin. Nat Methods 5:605–607PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Era A, Tominaga M, Ebine K, Awai C, Saito C, Ishizaki K, Yamato KT, Kohchi T, Nakano A, Ueda T (2009) Application of lifeact reveals F-actin dynamics in Arabidopsis thaliana and the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. Plant Cell Physiol 50:1041–1048PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Era A, Kutsuna N, Higaki T, Hasezawa S, Nakano A, Ueda T (2013) Microtubule stability affects the unique motility of F-actin in Marchantia polymorpha. J Plant Res 126:113–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sameshima M, Kishi Y, Osumi M, Mahadeo D, Cotter D (2000) Novel actin cytoskeleton: actin tubules. Cell Struct Funct 25:291–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sameshima M (2012) Stabilization of dormant spores depends on the actin cytoskeleton in the cellular slime mold. Plant Morphol 24:65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sameshima M, Kishi Y, Osumi M, Minamikawa-Tachino R, Mahadeo D, Cotter D (2001) The formation of actin rods composed of actin tubules in Dictyostelium discoideum spores. J Struct Biol 136:7–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mineyuki Y, Palevitz PA (1990) Relationship between preprophase band organization, F-actin and the division site in Allium. J Cell Sci 97:283–295Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mineyuki Y (1999) The preprophase band of microtubules: its function as a cytokinetic apparatus in higher plants. Int Rev Cytol 187:1–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Paredez AR, Somerville CR, Ehrhardt DW (2006) Visualization of cellulose synthase demonstrates functional association with microtubules. Science 312:1491–1495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schmidt A (1924) Histologische Studien an phanerogamen Vegetationspunkten. Bot Arch 8:345–404Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sakaguchi S, Hogetsu T, Hara N (1988) Arrangement of cortical microtubules in the shoot apex of Vinca major L. Observations by immunofluorescence microscopy. Planta 175:403–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science and EngineeringUniversity of ToyamaToyamaJapan

Personalised recommendations