Advertisement

Innovating Services Through Experiences: An Investigation of Servicescape’s Pivotal Role

  • Antonella CarùEmail author
  • Laura Colm
  • Bernard Cova
Chapter
Part of the Translational Systems Sciences book series (TSS, volume 6)

Abstract

Customer experience has become one of the greatest challenges for companies: this tendency is also present in services, where innovation is often a way to impact customer experiences. After a brief review of the literature on service innovation and on customer experience with regard to studies on the services, this chapter focuses on the servicescape as a platform able to support activities and interactions with customers and analyzes the role that innovative servicescapes can play on customer experience. Based on a three case vignettes analysis, the chapter identifies three main findings. The first is related to the dynamic nature of service experience and consequently to the need for a continuous improvement of servicescapes by understanding the evolving customer needs. The second is linked to the “container” in which the service experience takes place – the servicescape – that is becoming “content” itself. The third concerns the role of technology, with respect both to service providers and service customers.

Keywords

Customer experience Service innovation Servicescape Service design 

References

  1. Alam, I. (2006). Service innovation strategy and process: A cross-national comparative analysis. International Marketing Review, 23(3), 234–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alam, I., & Perry, C. (2002). A customer-oriented new service development process. Journal of Services Marketing, 16(6), 515–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Areni, C. S., & Kim, D. (1994). The influence of in-store lighting on consumers’ examination of merchandise in a wine store. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 11, 117–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aubert-Gamet, V., & Cova, B. (1999). Servicescapes: From modern non-places to postmodern common places. Journal of Business Research, 44(1), 37–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avlonitis, G. J., Papastathopoulou, P. G., & Gounaris, S. P. (2001). An empirically-based typology of product innovativeness for new financial services: Success and failure scenarios. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, 18(5), 324–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bateson, J. E. G., & Hoffman, K. D. (2011). Services marketing. Mason: SouthWestern.Google Scholar
  7. Benford, S., Giannachi, G., Koleva, B., & Rodden, T. (2009) From interaction to trajectories: Designing coherent journeys through user experiences. In: Proceedings 27th conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 709–718). New York: ACM Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bitner, M. J. (1992, April). Servicescapes: The impact of physical surroundings on customers and employees. Journal of Marketing, 56, 57–71.Google Scholar
  9. Bitner, M. J. (2001). Service and technology: Opportunities and paradoxes. Managing Service Quality, 11(6), 375–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Booms, B., & Bitner, M. J. (1981). Marketing strategies and organisation structures for service firms. In J. Donnelly & W. George (Eds.), Marketing of services: 1981 special educators’ conference proceedings (pp. 46–51). Chicago: American Marketing Association.Google Scholar
  11. Brüggen, E., Foubert, B., & Gremler, D. D. (2011). Extreme makeover: Short- and long-term effects of a remodeled servicescape. Journal of Marketing, 75, 71–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carù, A., & Cova, B. (2003). Revisiting consumption experience: A more humble but complete view of the concept. Marketing Theory, 3(2), 259–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carù, A., & Cova, B. (2007). Consuming experience. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Carù, A., & Cova, B. (2008). Small versus big stories in framing consumption experiences. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 11(2), 166–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carù, A., & Cova, B. (2015). Co-creating the collective service experience. Journal of Service Management, 26(2), 1–18.Google Scholar
  16. Chebat, J. C., Chebat, C. G., & Vaillant, D. (2001). The interplay of emotion and cognitions of consumers in the retail environment. The Journal of Business Research, 54, 115–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Coffey, B. S., & Wang, J. (2006). Service learning in a master of business administration (MBA) integrative project course: An experience in China. Journal of Education for Business, 82(2), 119–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crossley, N. (2006). Lifeworld. In A. Harrington, B. Marshall, & H. Muller (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social theory (pp. 322–322). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Damanpour, F. (1991). Organizational innovation: A meta-analysis of effects of determinants and moderators. Academy of Management Journal, 34(3), 555–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Daunt, K. L., & Harris, L. C. (2012). Exploring the forms of dysfunctional customer behaviour: A study of differences in servicescape and customer disaffection with service. Journal of Marketing Management, 28(1–2), 129–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. De Brentani, U. (1991). Success factors in developing new business services. European Journal of Marketing, 25(2), 33–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Donovan, R. J., & Rossiter, J. R. (1982). Store atmosphere: The environmental psychology approach. Journal of Retailing, 58(1), 34–57.Google Scholar
  23. Doolin, B., Dillon, S., Thompson, F., & Corner, J. L. (2005). Perceived risk, the internet shopping experience and on-line purchasing behavior: A New Zealand perspective. Journal of Global Information Management, 13(2), 66–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eco, U. (2001). Conferenza tenuta al Museo Guggenheim di Bilbao il 25 giugnoGoogle Scholar
  25. Finn, A. (2012). Customer delight: Distinct construct or zone of non-linear response to customer satisfaction? Journal of Service Research, 15(1), 99–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fisk, R. P., Grove, S. J., & John, J. (2014). Interactive services marketing (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  27. Flanagan, P., Johnston, R., & Talbot, D. (2005). Customer confidence: The development of a “pre-experience” concept. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 16(4), 373–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Galetzka, M., Verhoeven, J. W. M., & Pruyn, A. T. H. (2006). Service validity and service reliability of search, experience and credence services. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 17(3), 271–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Garcia, R., & Calantone, R. (2002). A critical look at technological innovation typology and innovativeness terminology: A literature review. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 19(2), 110–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grove, S. J., & Fisk, R. P. (1983). The dramaturgy of services exchange: An analytical framework for services marketing. In L. L. Berry, G. L. Shostack, & G. D. Upah (Eds.), Emerging perspectives on services marketing (pp. 45–49). Chicago: American Marketing Association.Google Scholar
  31. Grove, S. J., & Fisk, R. P. (1997). The impact of other customers on service experiences: A critical incident examination of ‘getting along’. Journal of Retailing, 73(1), 63–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harris, L. C., & Reynolds, K. L. (2003). The consequences of dysfunctional customer behavior. Journal of Service Research, 6(2), 144–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Harvard Business Review. (2014). Lessons from the leading edge of customer experience management. A report by Harvard Business Review Analytic Service. https://www.sas.com/content/dam/SAS/en_us/doc/whitepaper2/hbr-leading-edge-customer-experience-mgmt-107061.pdf
  34. Helkkula, A. (2011). Characterising the concept of service experience. Journal of Service Management, 22(3), 367–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Helkkula, A., Kelleher, C., & Pihlström, M. (2012). Characterizing value as an experience implications for service researchers and managers. Journal of Service Research, 15(1), 59–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hennig-Thurau, T., Walsh, G., & Wruck, O. (2001). An investigation into the factors determining the success of service innovations – The case of motion pictures. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 01(6), 1–23.Google Scholar
  37. Holbrook, M. B. (1995). Consumer research: Introspective essays on the study of consumption. Thousand Oaks: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Holbrook, M. B., & Hirschmann, E. C. (1982). The experiential aspects of consumption: Consumer fantasies, feelings and fun. The Journal of Consumer Research, 9(2), 132–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Holland, C. P., & Naudé, P. (2004). The metamorphosis of marketing into an information-handling problem. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 19(3), 167–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Holloway, B. B., Wang, S., & Parish, J. T. (2005). The role of cumulative on-line purchasing experience in service recovery management. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 19(3), 54–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hopkins, C. D., Grove, S. J., Raymond, M. A., & La Forge, M. C. (2009). Designing the e-servicescape: Implications for on-line retailers. Journal of Internet Commerce, 8(1/2), 23–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hunt, S., & Morgan, R. (1995). The comparative advantage theory of competition. Journal of Marketing, 59(2), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hunter, D. (2007). The virtual student/client experience. Journal of American Academy of Business, 12(1), 88–92.Google Scholar
  44. Johne, A., & Storey, C. (1998). New service development: A review of the literature and annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 32(3/4), 184–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Karmarkar, U. S., & Karmarkar, U. R. (2014). Customer experience and service design. In E. Baglieri & U. S. Karmarkar (Eds.), Managing consumer services (pp. 109–130). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Klaus, P., & Maklan, S. (2012). EXQ: A multiple-item scale for assessing service experience. Journal of Service Management, 23(1), 5–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Koering, S. K. (2003). E-scapes: The electronic physical environment and service tangibility. Psychology and Marketing, 20(2), 151–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lusch, R. F., & Vargo, S. L. (2006). Service-dominant logic: Reactions, reflections and refinements. Marketing Theory, 6(3), 281–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lusch, R. F., Vargo, S., & O’Brien, M. (2007). Competing through service: Insights from service-dominant logic. Journal of Retailing, 83(1), 2–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Macintyre, S., & Homel, R. (1997). Danger on the dance floor: A study of interior design, crowding and aggression in nightclubs. In R. Homel (Ed.), Policing for prevention: Reducing crime, public intoxication, and injury (Crime prevention studies, Vol. 7, pp. 91–114). New York: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  51. Magnusson, P., Matthing, J., & Kristensson, P. (2003). Managing user involvement in service innovation: Experiments with innovating end users. Journal of Service Research, 6(2), 111–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mari, M., & Poggesi, S. (2013). Servicescape cues and customer behavior: A systematic literature review and research agenda. The Service Industries Journal, 33(2), 171–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Matthing, J., Sandén, B., & Edvardsson, B. (2004). New service development: Learning from and with customers. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 15(5), 479–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mattila, A. S., & Wirtz, J. (2001). Congruency of scent and music as a driver of in-store evaluations and behavior. Journal of Retailing, 77, 273–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mehrabian, A., & Russell, J. A. (Eds.). (1974). An approach to environmental psychology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Free Press.Google Scholar
  56. Menon, K., & Bansal, H. S. (2007). Exploring consumer experience of social power during service consumption. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 18(1), 89–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Milliman, R. E. (1982). Using background music to affect the behavior of supermarket shoppers. The Journal of Marketing, 46(3), 86–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Montoya-Weiss, M. M., & Calantone, R. (1994). Determinants of new product performance: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 11(5), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nilsson, E., & Ballantyne, D. (2014). Reexamining the place of servicescape in marketing: A service-dominant logic perspective. Journal of Services Marketing, 28(5), 374–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pine, B. J., II, & Gilmore, J. H. (1998). Welcome to the experience economy. Harvard Business Review, 76(4), 97–105. Google Scholar
  61. Pine, B. J., II, & Gilmore, J. H. (1999). The experience economy. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  62. Prahalad, C. K., & Ramaswamy, V. (2004). The future of competition: Co-creating unique value with customers. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  63. Pullman, M., & Gross, M. (2004). Ability of experience design elements to elicit emotions and loyalty behaviours. Decision Sciences, 35(3), 551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ramaswamy, V. (2011). It’s about human experiences […] and beyond, to co-creation. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(2), 195–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Roederer, C., & Filser, M. (2015). Le marketing expérentiel: vers un marketing de la cocréation. Paris: Vuibert.Google Scholar
  66. Rose, R. L., & Neidermeyer, M. (1999). From rudeness to road rage: The antecedents and consequences of consumer aggression. In E. J. Arnould & L. M. Scott (Eds.), Advances in consumer research (Vol. 26, pp. 12–17). Provo: Association for Consumer Research.Google Scholar
  67. Rosenbaum, M. S., & Massiah, C. (2011). An expanded servicescape perspective. Journal of Service Management, 22(4), 471–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Schembri, S. (2006). Rationalizing service logic, or understanding services as experience? Marketing Theory, 6(3), 381–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schmitt, B. (1999). Experiential marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, 15, 53–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sheth, J. N. (1981). Psychology of innovation resistance: The less developed concept (LDC) in diffusion research. Research in Marketing, 4(3), 273–282.Google Scholar
  71. Spiggle, S. (1994). Analysis and interpretation of qualitative data in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(3), 491–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Thompson, C. J. (1997). Interpreting consumers: A hermeneutical framework for deriving marketing insights from the texts of consumers’ consumption stories. Journal of Marketing Research, 34(4), 438–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Toivonen, M., Tuominen, T., & Brax, S. (2007). Innovation process interlinked with the process of service delivery – A management challenge in KIBS. Economies et Societes, 3, 355–384.Google Scholar
  74. Tuzovic, S. (2008). Investigating the concept of potential quality: An exploratory study in the real estate industry. Managing Service Quality, 18(3), 255–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tynan, C., & McKechnie, S. (2009). Hedonic meaning creation though Christmas consumption: A review and model. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 8(3), 237–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2004). Evolving to a new dominant logic for marketing. Journal of Marketing, 68(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Vargo, S. L., & Lusch, R. F. (2008). Service-dominant logic: Continuing the evolution. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wagner, J. (2000). A model of aesthetic value in the servicescape. In T. Swartz & D. Iacobucci (Eds.), A handbook of services marketing and management (pp. 65–88). New York: Sage.Google Scholar
  79. Wallendorf, M., & Brucks, M. (1993). Introspection in consumer research: Implementation and implications. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(3), 339–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Williams, R., & Dargel, M. (2004). From servicescape to ‘cyberscape’. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 22(3), 310–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wooder, S., & Baker, S. (2012). Extracting key lessons in service innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 29(1), 13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zomerdijk, L. G., & Voss, C. A. (2010). Service design for experience-centric services. Journal of Service Research, 13(1), 67–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Marketing DepartmentBocconi UniversityMilanItaly
  2. 2.Marketing DepartmentUniversität StuttgartStuttgartGermany
  3. 3.Marketing DepartmentKedge Business SchoolMarseilleFrance

Personalised recommendations