Management of Secret in Religion and Company

Part of the Translational Systems Sciences book series (TSS, volume 4)


The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility of utilizing ideas developed in the study of religious organizations for understanding company. Obviously, both religious organizations and companies are socially constructed by human actions. In this sense, these two should be analyzed on the same arena. Therefore, scholars of company may have something to learn from scholars of religion and vice versa. This paper focuses on the management of “secret,” which is a common problem both in religion and company. As a beginning, I examine the characteristics of secrecy as a capital. Next, I discuss the secrecy in religion and company. Then, I propose three strategies to protect their secrets through the comparison between them as follows: involution strategy, hierarchy strategy, and invention strategy. Finally, we can say that carefully balancing the concealment and disclosure of secrets is important for the successful management of religion and company.


Religious Experience Religious Organization Invention Strategy Close Strategy Trade Secret 


  1. Ayabe T (1988) Himitsu no Jinruigaku (Anthropology of secret societies) (in Japanese). Academia Shuppankai, KyotoGoogle Scholar
  2. Bourdieu P (1991) Genesis and structure of the religious field. Comp Soc Res 13:1–44Google Scholar
  3. Bourdieu P, Wacquant LJD (1992) An introduction to reflexive sociology. Chicago University Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown JS, Denning S, Groh K, Prusak L (2011) Storytelling in organizations. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Carmy S (ed) (1996) Modern scholarship in the study of Torah. Jason Aronson, LanhamGoogle Scholar
  6. Coy MW (ed) (1989) Apprenticeship: from theory to method and back again. State University of New York Press, AlbanyGoogle Scholar
  7. Demerath NJ III, Hall PD, Schmitt T, Williams RH (eds) (1998) Sacred companies: organizational aspects of religion and religious aspects of organizations. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  8. Fukushima M (ed) (1995) Shintai no Kōchiku Gaku (Constructing body socially: the technique of body as a social learning process) (in Japanese). Hituzi Shobō, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  9. Geertz C (1963) Agricultural involution: the processes of ecological change in Indonesia. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  10. Goldenweiser AA (1936) Loose ends of theory on the individual, pattern, and involution in primitive society. In: Essays in anthropology presented to A. L. Kroeber. University of California Press, Berkeley, pp 99–104Google Scholar
  11. Hobsbawm E, Ranger T (eds) (1992) The invention of tradition. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Inoue N (1997) Jōhōka Jidai to Shukyō no Globalization (Information age and globalization of religion) (in Japanese). In: Kokugakuin Daigaku Nihon Bunka Kenkyūsho (ed) Globalization to Minzoku Bunka (Globalization and ethnic cultures). Shinshokan, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  13. Iwai H (2008) Jissen no Ba ni okeru Rinen (Management philosophy embedded in the field of practice) (in Japanese). In: Sumihara N, Mitsui I, Watanabe Y (eds) Keiei Rinen (Management philosophy). PHP, Tokyo, pp 97–120Google Scholar
  14. Iwai H (2011) Kankoku ni okeru Nikkei Shinshūkyō no Tenkai: Sekai Kyūsei Kyō no Jirei (Development of Japanese new religions in South Korea: the case of Sekai Kyūsei Kyō) (in Japanese). In: Nakamaki H, Smith W (eds) Global-ka suru Asia-kei Shūkyō: Keiei to Māketingu (Globalizing Asian religions: management and marketing). Tōhō Shuppan, Osaka, pp 124–137Google Scholar
  15. Iwai H (2013) Dojō wo Kainarasu Hōhō: Samsun Group no Message Keikei (Ways to domesticate loaches: message driven management of Samsung Group) (in Japanese). In: Mitsui I (ed) Asia-kigyō no Keieirinen: Seisei Denpa Keishou no Dynamism (Management philosophy of Asian companies: dynamism of creation, diffusion, and succession). Bunshindō, Tokyo, pp 145–170Google Scholar
  16. Neusner J (1981) Judaism: the evidence of the Mishnah. Chicago University Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  17. Neusner J (1988) Making of the classics in Judaism. Scholars Press, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  18. Nishiyama M (1959) Iemoto no Kenkyū (A study of iemoto) (in Japanese). Azekura Shobō, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  19. Ogawa K (2014) Ōpun & Krōzu Senryaku (Open & close strategy) (in Japanese). Shōeisha, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  20. Orr J (1996) Talking about machines: an ethnography of a modern job. Cornell University Press, IthacaGoogle Scholar
  21. Rey T (2007) Bourdieu on religion: imposing faith and legitimacy. Equinox, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. Schutz A (1964) Collected papers II: studies in social theory. Martinus Nijhoff, The HagueCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shimazono S (1988) Shin Shūkyō no Taikenshugi: Shoki Reiyūkai no Baai (Experientialism in new religions: the case of the early stage of Reiyukai) (in Japanese). In: Murakami S (ed) Minshū to Shūkyō (Ordinary people and religion). Shunjūsha, Tokyo, pp 277–326Google Scholar
  24. Simmel G (1950) The secret and the secret society. In: Wolff KH (ed) The sociology of Georg Simmel. Free Press, New York, pp 307–376Google Scholar
  25. Singleton J (ed) (1998) Learning in likely places: varieties of apprenticeship in Japan. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  26. Verter B (2003) Spiritual capital: theorizing religion with Bourdieu against Bourdieu. Sociol Theory 21(2):150–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Tezukayama UniversityNaraJapan

Personalised recommendations