Biological systems are well-known open nonequilibrium systems. They consist of biomolecules, and they assemble in mostly aqueous media to form hierarchical structures. In the systems, various types of weak forces such as hydrogen bonds and van der Waals force play an important role in yielding their unique functions. Here, we summarize the structure and motion of the molecules, and their complexes are considered in this book.
KeywordsAtomic Force Microscopy Liquid Crystal Scanning Probe Microscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Maxwell Model
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