Introduction and History of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT)
Intracranial Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) was a new treatment method for brain tumors introduced in the twentieth century to deliver tight spatial/temporal distribution using a high precision technique. The clinical experience from intracranial SRS, together with the technical developments in conventional RT, initiated the development of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for extracranial tumors characterized by a very high dose per fraction, delivered in a short time. This was started at the Swedish Karolinska University hospital in 1991 with tumors in the liver and lungs by Bromgren and Lax [1–3]. In parallel this method was developed in Japan and clinically introduced in 1994 for lung tumors [4–6]. During the last 5 years of the nineties, SBRT was introduced in several centers in Europe, Japan and USA. Wulf and Herfarth in Germany reported theis clinical results on lung cancer in 2001, followed by Timmerman in USA in 2003. The early reports had already shown very promising results with regard to local control and toxicity for the hypofractionation schedules which were adopted with 10–15 Gy/fraction given in 3–5 fractions during a short time. However, due to the new aspects introduced in SBRT, clinical experience was initially accumulated at a very slow rate and it was only during the last decade that outcome data from several centers was available to confirm the initial promising results. In this session, the historical development of SBRT was reviewed.
KeywordsStereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Gamma Knife Single High Dose Japan Clinical Oncology Group Initial Promising Result
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