Advertisement

Modes for Liquid Crystal Devices

  • Martin Schadt
  • Hidefumi Yoshida
  • Kenji Okamoto
  • Hidehiro Seki
  • Akio Sasaki
Chapter

Abstract

The first observation of a liquid crystalline phenomenon was made in 1888 by the Austrian botanist Reinitzer, in Graz. He noticed an opaque appearance in liquid cholesterol benzoate upon melting which turned into the common transparent liquid state when further increasing temperature. Only decades later it was realized that liquid crystals are not suspended solid-state microcrystals but represent a novel class of materials exhibiting long-range molecular order within their liquid crystalline temperature range. As a consequence of long-range order, liquid crystals exhibit unique anisotropic optical, dielectric, and mechanical properties. In 1918 Björnstahl (Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 56:161, 1918), Uppsala, published the first study of an electro-optical liquid crystal effect. Upon current flow through a thin, negative dielectric liquid crystal (LC) film of p-azoxyanisole, he observed light scattering. In 1935 Zwetkoff (C. R. Acad. Sci. USSR 4:131 1935) reported analogous results in sandwich cells using also p-azoxyanisole, i.e., the standard LC used by virtually all scientists between 1900 and 1960. In the mid-1960s industrial research groups in the United States and in Europe became interested in liquid crystals for potential electronic display applications. At that time the few compounds known to exhibit liquid crystallinity were unstable, and their melting temperatures were typically far above room temperature and/or extending over much too narrow temperature ranges for practical use. Only few of the numerous anisotropic optical, mechanical, and dielectric properties of liquid crystals (LCs) were known, and reliable experimental means for their investigation had hardly been developed (Schadt, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48:1 2009, Schadt, Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau 741:117 2010, Schadt, J. European Acad. Sci. 1:1 2011). Correlations between molecular functional groups, display-relevant LC material properties, and electro-optical properties which are prerequisite for advancing LC materials and LCDs hardly existed.

Keywords

Liquid Crystal Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Liquid Crystal Cell Liquid Crystal Molecule Vertical Alignment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Y. Bijörnstahl, Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 56, 161 (1918) (in German)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    W. Zwetkoff, C. R. Acad. Sci. USSR 4, 131 (1935) (in French)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Schadt, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Schadt, Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau 741, 117 (2010)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Schadt, J. Eur. Acad. Sci. 1, 1 (2011)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Williams, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 384 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    G.H. Heilmeier, L.A. Zanoni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 91 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    W. Helfrich, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4092 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    E.F. Carr, Ordered Fluids and Liquid Crystals (American Chemical Society, Washington D. C, 1967), p. 76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Schadt, D.F. Williams, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4364 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D.F. Williams, M. Schadt, Proc. IEEE 58, 476 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. Mauguin, Bull. Soc. Fr. Minéral. 34, 71 (1911) (in French)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Boller, H.P. Scherrer, M. Schadt, P. Wild, Proc. IEEE 60, 1002 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Schadt, W. Helfrich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127 (1971); Swiss Patent 532,261 (4 Dec 1970)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    F.M. Leslie, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 12, 57 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    D.W. Berreman, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 63, 1374 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    C.J. Gerritsma, W.H. de Jeu, P. van Zanten, Phys. Lett. 36A, 389 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J. Fergason, U.S. Patent 3,918,796 (22 April 1971)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. H. Buntz, Information der Internationalen, vol 118 (Treuhand AG, Basel, 2005), p. 1 (in German). cf also the English translation authorized by G. Buntz [http://www.lcd-experts.net]
  20. 20.
    D. Schmidt, M. Schadt, W. Helfrich, Z. Naturforsch. A 27, 277 (1972)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Schadt, W. Helfrich, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 17, 355 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Schadt, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 210 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, S.T. Wu, J. Display Tech. 5, 250 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    P.R. Gerber, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 116, 197 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, Nat. Mater. 1, 64 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Schadt, Biophys. Acta. 323, 351 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Schadt, G. Häusler, J. Membrane Biol. 18, 277 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    H. Kawakami et al., Jpn. Inst. Electron. Inf. Eng. 73 (1974)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    P.M. Alt, P. Pleshko, IEEE Trans. ED 21, 146 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. Schadt, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 305 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    T.J. Scheffer, J. Nehring, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1021 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    C. W. Waters, V. Brimmel, E. P. Raynes, in Proceedings of the SID84, 261 (1984)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. Schadt, F. Leenhouts, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 236 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. Schadt, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 89, 77 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    R. Kiefer et al., in SID Proceedings of the IDRC92, 547 (1992)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    M. Ohe, et al., in Proceedings of the SID Japan Display’95, 577 (1995)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    P. J. Bos, K. R. Koehler, in SID Proceedings of the Japan Display’83, 478 (1983)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    T. Miyashita, C-L. Kuo, M. Suzuki, T. Uchida, in SID Proceedings of the International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, 797 (1995)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, H. Y. Kim, T. Y. Eom, in SID Proceedings of the International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, 202 (1999)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    N.A. Clark, S.T. Lagerwall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    L.A. Beresnev, V.G. Chigrinov, D.I. Durgachev, E.P. Posiadaev, J. Fünfschilling, M. Schadt, Liq. Cryst. 5, 217 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    A.G. Verhulst, G. Cnossen, J. Fünfschilling, M. Schadt, in SID Proceedings of the IDRC94, 377 (1994)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    T. F. Brody, F. C. Luo, D. H. Davies, E. W. Greeneich, in SID Proceedings of the SID74, 166 (1974)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    M. Schiekel, K. Fahrenschon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 391 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    F. Kahn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 199 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    M.F. Shiekel et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 391 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kinoshita et al., Electro-optical characteristics of VAN type LCD. Dig. Liq. Cryst. Conf. 2B107, 72 (1988)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    K. H. Yang et al., IDRC91 Digest, (1991) pp. 68–72Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    T. Kamada et al., Dig. Jpn. Display 92, 886 (1992)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. Takeda et al., SID 98 Digest, 1077 (1998)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Y. Tanaka et al., SID 99 Digest, 206 (1999)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    K. Ohmuro et al., SID 97 Digest, 845 (1997)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    J. Chen et al., SID 98 Digest 212, 315 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Y. Yoshida et al., Digest of Asia Display/IMID’04, (2004), pp. 198–201Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ueda et al., Japanese opened patent 2006-133577 (2006)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Shimoshikiryo, Japanese opened patent 2005-99746 (2005)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    T. Uchida, in Proceedings of 12th International Display Workshops/Asia Display, LCT2-1, (2005), p. 33Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    P. J. Bos, P. A. Johnson Jr., K. Rickey Koehler/Beran, SID Symposium Digest, (1983), p. 30Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    P. A. Johnson, R. Vante, P. J. Bos, SID Symposium Digest, (1983), p. 28Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    P. J. Bos, J. A. Rahman, SID Symposium Digest, (1993), p. 273Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Y. Yamaguchi, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, SID Symposium Digest, (1993), p. 277Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    T. Miyashita, P. Vetter, M. Suzuki, Y. Yamaguchi, T. Uchida, Conference Record of Eurodisplay, (1993), p.149; J. SID, 3, 29 (1995)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    C.-L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, T. Uchida, SID Symposium Digest, (1994), p. 927Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    C.-L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, T. Uchida, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L1362 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    C.-L. Kuo, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, T. Uchida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1461 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, IEICE Trans. Electron. E79E-C, 1076 (1996)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    S. Onda, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 331, 383 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    T. Uchida, in Proceedings of IDMC, We-05-01. (2003)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    K. Wako, H. Yaginuma, T. Kishimoto, T. Ishinabe, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, SID Symp. Digest P-179L, 666 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    T. Ishinabe, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, SID Symposium Digest (2000), p. 1094Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    H. Mori, P.J. Bos, Jpn. Appl. Phys. 38, 2838 (1999)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    N. Koma, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, K. Yoneda, SID Symposium Digest (1999), p. 28Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    N. Nagae, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, IDRC (2000), p. 26Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    N. Nagae, Y. Yamada, Y.Ishii, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, in Proceedings of the Asia Display/IDW (2001), p. 363Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    I. Inoue, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, Y. Yamada, Y. Ishii, Conference Record of Eurodisplay (2002), p. 179; J. SID, 11/3, 571 (2003)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    K. Kuboki, T. Miyashita, T. Ishinabe, T. Uchida, Record of IDRC (2003), p. 80Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    T. Uchida, K. Saitoh, T. Miyashita, M. Suzuki, Conference Record of IDRC (1997), p. 37Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    K. Sekiya, K. Wako, T. Ishinabe, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, in Proceedings of IDW (2003), p. 1731Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    T. Ishinabe, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, K. Wako, T. Kishimoto, K. Sekiya, SID Symposium Digest (2004), LP-10Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    K. Sekiya, K. Wako, S. Nakano, T. Ishinabe, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, in Proceedings of the IDW, No.LCT5-5L (2004), p. 97Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    K. Wako, H. Yaginuma, T. Kishimoto, T. Ishinabe, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, SID Symposium Digest, No.P-179L (2005), p. 666Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    H. Seki, K. Wako, K. Sekiya, T. Ishinabe, T. Miyashita, T. Uchida, in Proceedings of the SPIE (2006), No.6030Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    G.H. Heilmeier, L.A. Zanoni, L.A. Barton, Proc. IEEE 56, 1162 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    A. Sasaki, K. Kurahashi, T. Takagi, Conference Record of the 1972 I.E. Conference on Display Devices (IEEE New York, 1972)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    A. Sasaki, K. Kurahahi, T. Takagi, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4356 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    A. Sasaki, M. Inoda, T. Ishibashi, Mol. Cryt. Liq. Cryt. 65, 39 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    A. Sasaki, M. Inoda, T. Ishibashi, Mol. Crst. Liq. Cryst. 74, 149 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    H. Melchior, F.J. Kahn, D. Maydan, D.B. Fraser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 392 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    N. Nawa, Jpn. J. Appl. 29, 2465 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    A. Sasaki, T. Morioka, T. Ishibashi, T. Takagi, in Proceedings of the 7th Conference on Solid State Devices, Tokyo 1975; Suppl. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl., 15 121 (1976)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    A. Sasaki, T. Morioka, T. Takagi, T. Ishibashi, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (Sept 1975), pp. 805–806Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    A. Sasaki, Mol. Cryt. Liq. Cryst. 139, 103 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    A. Sasaki, T. Ishibashi, M. Inoda, K. Kawahata, Write-in speed of laser beam address in liquid-crystal large-scale display. Trans. Inst. Electron. Comm. Eng. 63-C, 368 (1980) (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    A.Sasaki, M.Inoda, T.Ishibshi, in Proceedings of the Society of Information Display, 21 (1980)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    C. Tani, T. Urabe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 275 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    A. Sasaki, N. Hayashi, T. Ishibashi, Proc. Soci. Infom. Display 25, 95 (1984)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    T. Urabe, K. Arai, A. Ohkoshi, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 1552 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Schadt
    • 1
  • Hidefumi Yoshida
    • 2
  • Kenji Okamoto
    • 2
  • Hidehiro Seki
    • 3
  • Akio Sasaki
    • 4
  1. 1.MS High-Tech ConsultingSeltisbergSwitzerland
  2. 2.Sharp CorporationNaraJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of EngineeringHachinohe Institute of TechnologyHachinoheJapan
  4. 4.Kyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations