Advertisement

Function of Liquid Crystals

  • Junichi Hanna
  • Tomiki Ikeda
  • Toru Ube
  • Masanori Ozaki
  • Takashi Kato
  • Masafumi Yoshio
  • Atsushi Yoshizawa
Chapter

Abstract

An organic semiconductor is material that is capable of transporting a charge, that is, electrons and holes. By this characteristic, that is, the property to support a current flow, they can be used in various electronic devices. In the early 1970s, organic semiconductors have been put to their first practical use in the photosensitive drum of copy machines. Thereafter, it began to be used as a practical material for organic electroluminescent (EL) elements in the 1990s. In recent years, research and development has been actively aimed to practical use in organic solar cells and organic transistors.

Keywords

Ionic Liquid Liquid Crystal Organic Semiconductor Defect Mode Liquid Crystallinity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    D. Adam, F. Closs, T. Frey, D. Funhoff, D. Haarer, J. Ringsdorf, P. Schuhmacher, K. Siemensmeyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 457–460 (1993)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Funahashi, J. Hanna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2184 (1997)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. Tokunaga, J. Hanna, J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 12041 (2007)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Funahashi, J. Hanna, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 602 (1997)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Funahashi, J. Hanna, Chem. Phys. Lett. 397, 319 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Ahn, A. Ohno, J. Hanna, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 3764 (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Iino, J. Hanna, D. Haarer, Phys. Rev. B 72, 193203 (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    K. Tokunaga, Y. Takayashiki, H. Iino, J. Hanna, Phys. Rev. B 79, 033201 (2009)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Ohno, J. Hanna, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 751 (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Tokunaga, H. Iino, J. Hanna, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 510, 241 (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Maeda, M. Funahash, J. Hanna, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 366, 369 (2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Maeda, M. Funahashi, J. Hanna, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 346, 193 (2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. Zhang, J. Hanna, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 51–5253 (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y. Takayashiki, H. Iino, T. Kobori, T. Usui, J. Hanna, Annual Meeting of the Japanese Liquid Crystal Society (Tokyo, 2011), 3c01Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    H. Iino, J. Hanna, R.J. Bushby, B. Movaghar, B.J. Whitaker, M.J. Cook, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 132102 (2005)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. Kogo, T. Goda, M. Funahashi, J. Hanna, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1595 (1998)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Funahashi, N. Tamaoki, Chem. Phys. Chem. 7, 1193 (2006)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Meng, F. Sun, M.B. Goldfinger, G.D.J.Z. Li, W.J. Marshall, G.S. Blackman, J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 127, 2406 (2005)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. Iino, J. Hanna, Adv. Mater. 23, 1748 (2011)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    H. Ebata, T. Izawa, E. Miyazaki, K. Takimiya, M. Ikeda, H. Kuwabara, T. Yui, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 15732 (2007)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    B. KosÏata, V. Kozmik, J. Svoboda, A.V. Novotana, P. VanaÂk, A.M. Glogarva, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 30, 603 (2003)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. Hanna, Y. Takayashiki, H. Iino, T. Kobori, T. Usui, Autumn Meetings of Japanese Liquid Crystal Society (Tokyo, 2011), 1p-R-11Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. Iino, T. Kobori, T. Usui, Y. Takayashiki, H. Iino, A. Ohno, 72th Autumn Meetings of Japanese Society of Applied Physics (Yamagata, 2011), 1p-R-13Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    N.S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A.J. Heeger, F. Wudl, Science 258, 1474 (1992)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    L. Schmidt-Mende, A. Fechtenkotter, K. Mullen, E. Moons, R.H. Friend, J.D. MacKenzie, Science 293, 1119 (2001)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. Hori, Y. Miyake, N. Yamasaki, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, Y. Shimizu, M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Express 3, 101602 (2010)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    K. Nakano, H. Iino, T. Usui, J. Hanna, 72th Autumn Meetings of Japanese Society of Applied Physics (Yamagata, 2011), 1p-L-3Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    H. Iino, J. Hanna, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Express Letter 46, L867 (2006)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. G. Lee, Rhodopsin and G-Protein Linked Receptors, Part A (JAI Press, Greenwich, 1996)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    S. Tazuke, S. Kurihara, T. Ikeda, Chem. Lett. 16, 911 (1987)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    T. Ikeda, J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2037 (2003)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    T. Ikeda, S. Horiuchi, D.B. Karanjit, S. Kurihara, S. Tazuke, Macromolecules 23, 42 (1990)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    T. Ikeda, S. Kurihara, D.B. Karanjit, S. Tazuke, Macromolecules 23, 3938 (1990)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    T. Ikeda, O. Tsutsumi, Science 268, 1873 (1995)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Warner, E. Terentjev, Liquid Crystal Elastomers (Clarendon, Oxford, 2003)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    P.G. de Gennes, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 281, 101 (1975)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    P.G. de Gennes, M. Hébert, R. Kant, Macromol. Symp. 113, 39 (1997)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    H. Finkelmann, H. Kock, G. Rehage, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 2, 317 (1981)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    H. Finkelmann, E. Nishikawa, G.G. Pereira, M. Warner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 015501–1 (2001)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    T. Ikeda, M. Nakano, Y. Yu, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, Adv. Mater. 15, 201 (2003)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Y. Yu, M. Nakano, T. Ikeda, Nature 425, 145 (2003)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    N. Tabiryan, S. Serak, X.-M. Dai, T. Bunning, Opt. Express 13, 7442 (2005)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Kondo, Y. Yu, T. Ikeda, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 1378 (2006)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    M. Kondo, M. Sugimoto, M. Yamada, Y. Naka, J. Mamiya, M. Kinoshita, A. Shishido, Y. Yu, T. Ikeda, J. Mater. Chem. 20, 117 (2010)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    J. Mamiya, A. Yoshitake, M. Kondo, Y. Yu, T. Ikeda, J. Mater. Chem. 18, 63 (2008)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    T. Yoshino, M. Kondo, J. Mamiya, M. Kinoshita, Y. Yu, T. Ikeda, Adv. Mater. 22, 1361 (2010)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    M. Camacho-Lopez, H. Finkelmann, P. Palffy-Muhoray, M. Shelley, Nat. Mater. 3, 307 (2004)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    C.L. van Oosten, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, D.J. Broer, Nat. Mater. 8, 677 (2009)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    T.J. White, N. Tabiryan, S.V. Serak, U.A. Hrozhyk, V.P. Tondiglia, H. Koerner, R.A. Vaia, T.J. Bunning, Soft Matter 4, 1796 (2008)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, R. Vergata, T.J. White, R.A. Vaia, T.J. Bunning, Soft Matter 6, 779 (2010)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    M. Yamada, M. Kondo, J. Mamiya, Y. Yu, M. Kinoshita, C.J. Barrett, T. Ikeda, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 4986 (2008)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    M. Yamada, M. Kondo, R. Miyasaka, Y. Naka, J. Mamiya, M. Kinoshita, A. Shishido, Y. Yu, C.J. Barrett, T. Ikeda, J. Mater. Chem. 19, 60 (2009)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    E. Yablonovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 (1987)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 (1987)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    K. Yoshino, K. Tada, M. Ozaki, A.A. Zakhidov, R.H. Baughman, Jpn. J. App. Phys. 36, L714 (1997)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    V.N. Bogomolov, S.V. Gaponenko, I.N. Germanenko, A.M. Kapitonov, E.P. Petrov, N.V. Gaponenko, A.V. Prokofiev, A.N. Ponyavina, N.I. Silvanovich, S.M. Samoilovich, Phys. Rev. E 55, 7619 (1997)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    K. Busch, S. John, Phys. Rev. E 58, 3896 (1998)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    K. Yoshino, Manufacturing and Technology (in Japanese). 50, 26 (1998)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    K. Yoshino, S. Tatsuhara, Y. Kawagishi, M. Ozaki, A.A. Zakhidov, Z.V. Vardeny, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L1187 (1998)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    K. Yoshino, S.B. Lee, S. Tatsuhara, Y. Kawagishi, M. Ozaki, A.A. Zakhidov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3506 (1998)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    K. Yoshino, S. Tatsuhara, Y. Kawagishi, M. Ozaki, A.A. Zakhidov, Z.V. Vardeny, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2590 (1999)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    S. Sato, H. Kajii, Y. Kawagishi, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L1475 (1999)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    A.A. Zakhidov, R.H. Baughman, Z. Iqbal, C. Cui, I. Khayrullin, S.O. Dantas, J. Marti, V.G. Ralchenko, Science 282, 897 (1998)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    K. Yoshino, H. Kajii, Y. Kawagishi, M. Ozaki, A.A. Zakhidov, R.H. Baughman, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4926 (1999)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    H. Kajii, Y. Kawagishi, H. Take, K. Yoshino, A.A. Zakhidov, R.H. Baughman, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 758 (2000)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    K. Yoshino, S. Satoh, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, M. Ozaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L961 (1999)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    K. Yoshino, Y. Shimoda, Y. Kawagishi, K. Nakayama, M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 932 (1999)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    K. Busch, S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967 (1999)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627 (2001)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    D. Kang, J.E. Maclennan, N.A. Clark, A.A. Zakhidov, R.H. Baughman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052 (2001)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Q.-B. Meng, C.-H. Fu, S. Hayami, Z.-Z. Gu, O. Sato, A. Fujishima, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5794 (2001)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    M. Ozaki, Y. Shimoda, M. Kasano, K. Yoshino, Adv. Mater. 14, 514 (2002)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    H. Takeda, K. Yoshino, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 5658 (2002)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    M. Campbell, D.N. Sharp, M.T. Harrison, R.G. Denning, A.J. Turberfield, Nature 404, 53 (2000)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    T. Kondo, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 725 (2001)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    R.L. Sutherland, L.V. Natarajan, V.P. Tondiglia, T.J. Bunning, Chem. Mater. 5, 1533 (1993)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    K. Tanaka, K. Kato, S. Tsuru, S. Sakai, J. SID 2, 37 (1994)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    V.P. Tondiglia, L.V. Natarajan, R.L. Sutherland, D. Tomlin, T.J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 14, 187 (2002)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    M.J. Escuti, J. Qi, G.P. Crawford, Opt. Lett. 28, 522 (2003)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 422 (2003)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1462 (2003)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1651 (2004)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    I.P. Il’chishin, E.A. Tikhonov, V.G. Tishchenko, M.T. Shpak, Sov. J. Quant. Electron. 8, 1487 (1978)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    L. S. Goldberg, J. M. Schnur, U. S. Patent 3,771,065 (1973)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    I.P. Il’chishin, E.A. Tikhonov, V.G. Tishchenko, M.T. Shpak, JETP Lett. 32, 24 (1980)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    J. Martorell, N.M. Lawandy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 6, 1877 (1990)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    J.P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M.J. Bloemer, C.M. Bowden, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896 (1994)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    V.I. Kopp, B. Fan, H.K. Vithana, A.Z. Genack, Opt. Lett. 23, 1707 (1998)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1523 (2003)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    B. Taheri, A.F. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, R. Twieg, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 358, 73 (2001)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    A. Munoz, F.P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, Opt. Lett. 26, 804 (2001)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    E. Alvarez, M. He, A.F. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, S.V. Serak, B. Taheri, R. Twieg, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 369, 75 (2001)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    K. Shirota, H.B. Sun, S. Kawata, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1632 (2004)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    F. Araoka, K.C. Shin, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, Z. Zhu, T.M. Swager, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 279 (2003)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    S. Furumi, S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, S. Mashiko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 16 (2003)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    F.J. Kahn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 209 (1970)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, K. Funamoto, R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, K. Yoshino, Proc. SPIE 5213, 111 (2003)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, K. Yoshino, Adv. Mater. 14, 306 (2002)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    M. Ozaki, M. Kasano, T. Kitasho, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, K. Yoshino, Adv. Mater. 15, 974 (2003)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    M. Kasano, M. Ozaki, D. Ganzke, W. Haase, K. Yoshino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4026 (2003)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    T. Matsui, R. Ozaki, K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 3741 (2002)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    W. Cao, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, Nat. Mater. 1, 111 (2002)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, T. Kajiyama, Nat. Mater. 1, 64 (2002)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, T. Nagamura, Adv. Mater. 18, 48 (2006)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Y.-C. Yang, C.S. Kee, J.E. Kim, H.Y. Par, J.C. Lee, Y.J. Jeon, Phys. Rev. E 60, 6852 (1999)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    V.I. Kopp, A.Z. Genack, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 033901 (2002)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Phys. Rev. E 69, 061715 (2004)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    V.I. Kopp, R. Bose, A.Z. Genack, Opt. Lett. 28, 349 (2003)Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    M. Ozaki, R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, K. Yoshino, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L472 (2003)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    J. Schmidtke, W. Stille, H. Finkelmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 083902 (2003)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    M.H. Song, B. Park, K.-C. Shin, T. Ohta, Y. Tsunoda, H. Hoshi, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, J. Watanabe, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, Z. Zhu, T.M. Swager, H. Takezoe, Adv. Mater. 16, 779 (2004)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    H. Yoshida, R. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, M. Ozaki, Thin Solid Films 509, 197 (2006)Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    H. Yoshida, C.H. Lee, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231913 (2006)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    H. Yoshida, C.H. Lee, Y. Matsuhisa, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, Adv. Mater. 19, 1187 (2007)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    H. Yoshida, C.H. Lee, Y. Miura, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071107 (2007)Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Jpn. J. App. Phys. 41, L1482 (2002)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 593 (2003)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L669 (2003)Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    R. Ozaki, Y. Matsuhisa, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1844 (2004)Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    R. Ozaki, T. Sanda, H. Yoshida, Y. Matsuhisa, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L493 (2006)Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    R. Ozaki, Y. Matsuhisa, H. Yoshida, K. Yoshino, M. Ozaki, J. App. Phys. 100, 023102 (2006)Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    J. Hwang, M.H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J.W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Takezoe, Nat. Mater. 4, 383 (2005)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L629 (2005)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101109 (2006)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Y. Matsuhisa, R. Ozaki, Y. Takao, M. Ozaki, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 033120 (2007)Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Y. Matsuhisa, W. Haase, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201112 (2007)Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, EKISHO 8, 143 (2002)Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    M. Ozaki, OYO BUTURI 75, 1445 (2006)Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    M. Ozaki, Y. Matsuhisa, H. Yoshida, R. Ozaki, A. Fujii, in Nanophotonic Materials Photonic Crystals, Plasmonics, and Metamaterials ed. by R. B. Wehrspohn, H.-S. Kitzerow, K. Busch, Weimheim (Wiley, 2008), Chapter 14Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    L. M. Blinov, R. Bartelino (ed.), Liquid Crystal Microlasers (Transworld Research Network, Kerala, 2010)Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    H. Yoshida, Y. Inoue, T. Isomura, Y. Matsuhisa, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 093306 (2009)Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, Kenta Inoue, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki. Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102702 (2010)Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, T. Kumagai, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50, 072702 (2011)Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    C. Mowatt, S.M. Morris, T.D. Wilkinson, H.J. Coles, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 251109 (2010)Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Y. Takanishi, Y. Ohtsuka, G. Suzaki, S. Nishimura, H. Takezoe, Opt. Express 18, 12909 (2010)Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    M. Uchimura, Y. Watanabe, F. Araoka, J. Watanabe, H. Takezoe, G. Konishi, Adv. Mater. 22, 4473 (2010)Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    A. Muñoz, M.E. McConney, T. Kosa, P. Luchette, T.J. Bunning, L. Sukhomlinova, B. Taheri, Opt. Lett. 37, 2904 (2012)Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, Adv. Mater. 23, 5498 (2011)Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    M. Ojima, N. Numata, Y. Ogawa, K. Murata, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 086001 (2009)Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Y. Ogawa, M. Ojima, K. Murata, Y. Fujiwara, H. Kubo, H. Yoshida, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 545, 85 (2011)Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    I.C. Khoo, D.H. Werner, X. Liang, A. Diaz, B. Weiner, Opt. Lett. 31, 2592 (2006)Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    H. Yoshida, T. Matsui, A. Miura, N. Ikeda, M. Ochiai, Y. Sugimoto, H. Fujikawa, M. Ozaki, Opt. Mater. Express 2, 893 (2012)Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    H. Yoshida, Y. Tanaka, K. Kawamoto, H. Kubo, T. Tsuda, A. Fujii, S. Kuwabata, H. Kikuchi, M. Ozaki, Appl. Phys. Express 2, 121501 (2009)Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    T. Kato, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49(43), 7847 (2010)Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    T. Kato, N. Mizoshita, K. Kishimoto, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45(1), 38 (2006)Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    T. Kato, Science 295, 2414 (2002)Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    T. Kato, Chemistry Today (July 2001), p. 24Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    M. Funahashi, H. Shimura, M. Yoshio, T. Kato, Struct. Bond. 128, 151 (2008)Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    T. Kato, M. Yoshio, in Electrochemical Aspects of Ionic Liquids, ed. by H. Ohno, (Wiley 2005), Chapter 25, p. 307Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    T. Kato, Struct. Bond. 96, 95 (2000)Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    T. Kato, Macromol. Symp. 98(1), 311 (1995)Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    T. Kato, Chem. Chem. Ind. 58, 561 (2005)Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    H. Kihara, T. Kato, T. Uryu, J.M.J. Fréchet, Chem. Mater. 8(4), 961 (1996)Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    V. Percec, G. Johansson, J. Heck, G. Ungar, S.V. Batty, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1, 1411 (1993)Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    T. Ohtake, K. Ito, N. Nishina, H. Kihara, H. Ohno, T. Kato, Polym. J. 31(11–2), 1155 (1999)Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    T. Ohtake, M. Ogasawara, K. Ito-Akita, N. Nishina, S. Ujiie, H. Ohno, T. Kato, Chem. Mater. 12(3), 782 (2000)Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    T. Ohtake, Y. Takamitsu, K. Ito-Akita, K. Kanie, M. Yoshizawa, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, T. Kato, Macromolecules 33(21), 8109 (2000)Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    K. Hoshino, K. Kanie, T. Ohtake, T. Mukai, M. Yoshizawa, S. Ujiie, H. Ohno, T. Kato, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 203, 1547 (2002)Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    K. Kishimoto, M. Yoshio, T. Mukai, M. Yoshizawa, H. Ohno, T. Kato, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(11), 3196 (2003)Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    K. Kishimoto, T. Suzawa, T. Yokota, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, T. Kato, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(44), 15618 (2005)Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Y. Iinuma, K. Kishimoto, Y. Sagara, M. Yoshio, T. Mukai, I. Kobayashi, H. Ohno, T. Kato, Macromolecules 40(14), 4874 (2007)Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    H. Ohno, in Ionic Liquid II-Marvelous Developments and Colorful Near Future, Tokyo (CMC Publishing Co., Ltd., 2006); H. Ohno, in Ionic Liquids: The Front and Future of Material Development, (CMC Publishing Co., Ltd., 2003)Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    H. Ohno, in Electrochemical Aspects of Ionic Liquids (Wiley, 2005)Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    H. Ohno, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 79(11), 1665 (2006)Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    T. Kato, Chemistry Today (March 2007), p.52Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    M. Yoshio, T. Kato, J. Surf. Sci. Soc. Jpn. 28, 318 (2007)Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    M. Yoshio, T. Katoin Ionic Liquid II-Marvelous Developments and Colorful Near Future, ed. by H. Ohno, (Tokyo CMC Publishing Co., Ltd., 2006) Chapter 22, p. 266; H. Ohno (ed.) Ionic Liquids: The Front and Future of Material Development (CMC Publishing Co., Ltd., 2003), Chapter 5, p. 161Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    T. Mukai, M. Yoshio, H. Ohno, T. Kato, Expected materials for the future, 6(2), 2 (2006)Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    T. Kato, K. Kanie, M. Yoshio, H. Ono, M. Yoshizawa, Japanese Unexamined Patent Application Publication No. 2002-358821 (Priority Date: 30 March, 2001); T. Kato, K. Kanie, M. Yoshio, H. Ohno, M. Yoshizawa, US 7,166,238 B2Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    M. Yoshio, T. Mukai, K. Kanie, M. Yoshizawa, H. Ohno, T. Kato, Adv. Mater. 14(5), 351 (2002)Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    T. Kato, T. Kawakami, Chem. Lett. 26(3), 211 (1997)Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    M. Yoshio, T. Mukai, M. Yoshizawa, H. Ohno, T. Kato, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 413, 99 (2004)Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    H. Shimura, M. Yoshio, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, T. Kato, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(5), 1759 (2008)Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    S. Ujiie, Ekisho 10(2), 121 (2006)Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    K. Binnemans, Chem. Rev. 105(11), 4148 (2005)Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    C. J. Bowlas, D. W. Bruce, K. R. Seddon, Chem. Commun. 1625 (1996)Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    C.M. Gordon, J.H. Holbrey, A.R. Kennedy, K.R. Seddon, J. Mater. Chem. 8(12), 2627 (1998)Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    J. D. Holbrey, K. R. Seddon, J. Chem. Soc. Dalton Trans. 2133 (1999)Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    M. Yoshio, T. Mukai, K. Kanie, M. Yoshizawa, H. Ohno, T. Kato, Chem. Lett. 31(3), 320 (2002)Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    M. Yoshio, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, T. Kato, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(4), 994 (2004)Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    K. Hoshino, M. Yoshio, T. Mukai, K. Kishimoto, H. Ohno, T. Kato, J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 41(22), 3486 (2003)Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, T. Kato, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570 (2006)Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    M. Yoshio, T. Ichikawa, H. Shimura, T. Kagata, A. Hamasaki, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, T. Kato, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. 80(9), 1836 (2007)Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    T. Ichikawa, M. Yoshio, A. Hamasaki, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, T. Kato, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(35), 10662 (2007)Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    T. Ichikawa, M. Yoshio, A. Hamasaki, J. Kagimoto, H. Ohno, T. Kato, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132(28), 9555 (2011)Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    T. Ichikawa, M. Yoshio, A. Hamasaki, S. Taguchi, F. Liu, X. Zeng, G. Unger, H. Ohno, T. Kato, J. Am. Chem. 134, 2634 (2012)Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    T. Ichikawa, M. Yoshio, S. Taguchi, J. Kagimoto, H. Ohno, T. Kato, Chem. Sci. 3(6), 2001 (2012)Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    M. Henmi, K. Nakatsuji, T. Ichikawa, H. Tomioka, T. Sakamoto, M. Yoshio, T. Kato, Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2238 (2012)Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    D. Dunmur, T. Sluckin, Soap, Science, and Flat-screen TVs: A History of Liquid Crystals London (Oxford University Press, 2011)Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    S. R. Goodman, Medical Cell Biology (Academic, 2007)Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    T. Tani, K. Ohta, in Proceedings of 2004 Conference of The Japanese Liquid Crystal Society, vol 390 (2004)Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    L. Stevenson, D.B. Bennet, D. Lechuga-Ballesteros, J. Pharmaceutic. Sci. 94, 1861 (2005)Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    A. Fatta, J. Zhang, D.B. Bennett, D. Lechuga, Pharm. Sci. 4, M1286 (2003)Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    A.J. Primeau, A. Rendon, D. Hedley, L. Ligle, F. Tannock, Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 8782 (2005)Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    N. Tang, G. Du, N. Wang, C. Liu, H. Hang, W. Liang, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 99, 1004 (2007)Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    M. Grinda, J. Clarhaut, B. Renoux, I. Tranoy-Opalinski, S. Papot, Med. Chem. Commun. 3, 68 (2012)Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    A. Yoshizawa, Y. Takahashi, R. Terasawa, S. Chiba, K. Takahashi, M. Hazawa, I. Kashiwakura, Chem. Lett. 38, 310 (2009)Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    A. Yoshizawa, Y. Takahashi, R. Terasawa, A. Nishizawa, K. Takeuchi, M. Sagisaaka, K. Takahashi, M. Hazawa, I. Kashiwakura, Chem. Lett. 38, 530 (2009)Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    V. Percec, M. Lee, C. Ackerman, Polymer 22, 703 (1992)Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    A. Griffin, S.R. Vidya, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 173, 75 (1989)Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    V. Percec, M. Lee, Macromolecules 24, 1017 (1991)Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Y. Takahashi, M. Hazawa, K. Takahazhi, M. Sagisaka, I. Kashiwakura, A. Yoshizawa, Med. Chem. Commun. 2, 55 (2011)Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Y. Fukushi, A. Yoshizawa, EKISHO 16, 21 (2012)Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    V.K. Gupta, J.J. Skaife, T.B. Dubrovsky, N.L. Abbott, Science 279, 2077 (1998)Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    A. Gabizon, R. Catane, B. Uziely, Cancer Res. 54, 987 (1994)Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    R. Negrini, R. Mezzenga, Langmuir 27, 5296 (2011)Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    T. Wakasaya, H. Yoshino, Y. Fukushi, A. Yoshizawa, I. Kashiwakura, Int. J. Oncology 42, 1205 (2013)Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Y. Fukushi, M. Hazawa, K. Takahashi, A. Yoshizawa, I. Kashiwakura, Invest. New Drugs 29, 827 (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junichi Hanna
    • 1
  • Tomiki Ikeda
    • 2
  • Toru Ube
    • 2
  • Masanori Ozaki
    • 3
  • Takashi Kato
    • 4
  • Masafumi Yoshio
    • 4
  • Atsushi Yoshizawa
    • 5
  1. 1.Tokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Research and Development InitiativeChuo UniversityTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of EngineeringOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan
  4. 4.School of EngineeringThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  5. 5.Graduate School of Science and TechnologyHirosaki UniversityHirosakiJapan

Personalised recommendations