The significant advantages of minimizing surgical trauma, such as reduced pain, shorter hospital stays, faster return to normal activities, and improved cosmesis, have resulted in the development of minimally invasive surgery (Modi P et al (2008) Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 34:943–952). Until recently, various difficulties associated with endoscopic approaches had stalled similar progress in the field of cardiac surgery. However, robotic technology overcame the difficulties associated with conventional endoscopic surgery and has made possible a new approach to minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS).
The application of robot-assisted coronary surgery ranges from internal mammary artery (IMA) harvesting with hand-sewn anastomoses to totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting (TECAB) either on- or off-pump. The bilateral IMA can be harvested with the aid of a surgical robot and then multivessel bypass grafting can follow. Srivastava calls such robot-assisted minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting (MIDCAB) “ThoraCAB” (Srivastava S et al (2006) Ann Thorac Surg 81:800–806). Surgical robots can not only endoscopically harvest the IMA but they can also anastomose the coronary artery in TECAB.
KeywordsCoronary Artery Bypass Grafting Left Anterior Descend Atrial Septal Defect Internal Mammary Artery Mitral Valve Surgery
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