The da Vinci Surgical® Systems
The da Vinci® Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is at present the most commonly used robotic system for performing minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery in humans.
Currently, the system is cleared by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the use in urological surgical procedures, general laparoscopic surgical procedures, gynecologic laparoscopic surgical procedures, transoral otolaryngology surgical procedures restricted to benign and malignant tumors classified as T1 and T2, general thoracoscopic surgical procedures, and thoracoscopically assisted cardiotomy procedures. The system has also received clearance to be employed with adjunctive mediastinotomy to perform coronary anastomosis during cardiac revascularization. It is indicated for adult and pediatric use—with the exception of transoral otolaryngology surgical procedures in pediatric patients (as of December 2012). Additionally, the da Vinci Surgical System is cleared for a variety of indications in large part of Europe, Asia, and other parts of the world.