Transpiration Characteristics of Chinese Pines (Pinus tabulaeformis) in an Urban Environment

  • Hua Wang
  • Zhiyun OuyangEmail author
  • Weiping Chen
  • Xiaoke Wang
  • Hua Zheng
Part of the Ecological Research Monographs book series (ECOLOGICAL)


Urban environments can significantly influence the transpiration of isolated plants. Therefore, optimal green space design, tree species selection, and tree maintenance require that the water use patterns of urban plants be quantified. In this study, the transpiration from individual Chinese pines (Pinus tabulaeformis) in the center of Beijing, China was measured continuously over a 2-year period. The response of whole-tree transpiration (E t) to environmental factors was investigated in multiple time scales. Maximum sap flux density (J s) ranged from 3.34E-05 to 8.2E-03 cm/s. E t was much higher in summer (32.93 kg/day) than in winter (6.22 kg/day). E t in the urban environment was much higher than that reported for Chinese pines with similar diameters at breast height (DBH) during 2000–2005 in suburban Beijing. Great differences were observed in the response of E t to environmental factors at different time scales. At the diurnal scale, hourly mean J s was linearly related to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and vapor pressure deficit (D), whereas at the daily scale, daily mean E t was linearly related to PAR, air temperature (T a), and soil water content (SWC), and was curvilinearly related to D. At the annual scale, E t was similar in the growing seasons of 2008 (a wet year) and 2009 (a dry year), even though the annual precipitation (P) and irrigation times were significantly different (724.8 vs. 432.8 mm; 2 vs. 12). From this result, it can be concluded that urban soil water conditions affected by both P and irrigation practice were a major cause of interannual E t variation.


Green space Isolated tree transpiration Sap flux density Soil water content Urban environment Urban soil water 



This study was supported by the Project of Knowledge Innovation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences for research into the urban ecosystem mechanisms of Beijing (KZCX2-YW-422). It was also supported by the “11th Five-Year Plan” to support science and technology projects (2007BAC28B01) and the Beijing Special Finance Investment on the Construction of a Public Education Platform for the Security of the Environment and the Ecosystem of the Capital (2008-0178). We thank the editor and two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and suggestions. We also thank all the members of Beijing Urban Ecosystem Research Station and Beijing Teaching Botanical Garden for their assistance in the field.


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hua Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhiyun Ouyang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Weiping Chen
    • 1
  • Xiaoke Wang
    • 1
  • Hua Zheng
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional EcologyResearch Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Institute of Forestry and PomologyBeijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry SciencesBeijingChina

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