Sendai Virus Biology and Engineering Leading up to the Development of a Novel Class of Expression Vector

  • Yoshiyuki Nagai
  • Atsushi Kato


Sendai virus (SeV), a prototypic member of the family Paramyxoviridae, was discovered in 1953, six decades ago. It is not just an old mouse pathogen but has been an irreplaceable model in in basic research to understand paramyxovirus replication and pathogenesis. The SeV reverse genetics established in 1996 has played a particularly prominent role in this context by settling outstanding issues and resolving enigmas. At the same time, the technology is evolving into a multipurpose cytoplasmic (nonintegrating) RNA vector. Its diverse medical applications are now in the pipeline and being tested in clinical settings as illustrated in the subsequent chapters. The production of diverse target-oriented devices has been possible by making full use of a variety of SeV theories and traits discovered during the six decades. Here, we summarize the long journey of SeV research leading up to the invention of this novel class of expression vector, SeV vector.


Newcastle Disease Virus Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Editing Site Hepatitis Delta Virus Versus Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ali A, Nayak DP (2000) Assembly of Sendai virus: M protein interacts with F and HN proteins and with the cytoplasmic tail and transmembrane domain of F protein. Virology 276:289–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Babst M, Wendland B, Estepa EJ, Emr SD (1998) The Vps4p AAA ATPase regulates membrane association of a Vps protein complex required for normal endosome function. EMBO J 17:2982–2993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bächi T (1980) Intramembrane structural differentiation in Sendai virus maturation. Virology 106:41–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bieniasz PD (2006) Late budding domains and host proteins in enveloped virus release. Virology 344:55–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Billeter MA, Cattaneo R (1991) Molecular biology of defective measles viruses persisting in the human central nervous system. In: Kingsbury DW (ed) The paramyxoviruses. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Bitzer M, Lauer U, Baumann C, Spiegel M, Gregor M, Neubert WJ (1997) Sendai virus efficiently infects cells via the asialoglycoprotein receptor and requires the presence of cleaved F0 precursor proteins for this alternative route of cell entry. J Virol 71:5481–5486PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Blanchard L, Tarbouriech N, Blackledge M, Timmins P, Burmeister WP, Ruigrok RWH, Marion D (2004) Structure and dynamics of the nucleocapsid-binding domain of the Sendai virus phosphoprotein in solution. Virology 319:201–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bossow S, Schiecht S, Schubbert R, Pfeiffer M, Neubert WJ, Wiegand M (2012) Evaluation of nucleocapsid and phosphoprotein P functionality as critical factors during the early phase of paramyxoviral infection. Open Virol J 6:73–81. doi: 10.2174/1874357901206010073 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Böttcher E, Freuer C, Steinmetzer T, Klenk HD, Garten W (2006) MDCK cells that express proteases TMPRSS2 and HAT provide a cell system to propagate influenza viruses in the absence of trypsin and to study cleavage of HA and its inhibition. Vaccine 27:6324–6329Google Scholar
  10. Bousse T, Takimoto T (2006) Mutation at residue 523 creates a second receptor binding site on human parainfluenza virus type 1 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein. J Virol 80:9009–9016PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Buchholz CJ, Spehner D, Drillien R, Neubert WJ, Homann HE (1993) The conserved N-terminal region of Sendai virus nucleocapsid protein NP is required for nucleocapsid assembly. J Virol 67:5803–5812PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cadd T, Garcin D, Tapparel C, Itoh M, Homma M, Roux L, Curran J, Kolakofsky D (1996) The Sendai paramyxovirus accessory C proteins inhibit viral genome amplification in a promoter-specific fashion. J Virol 70:5067–5074PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Calain P, Roux L (1993) The rule of six, a basic feature for efficient replication of Sendai virus defective interfering RNA. J Virol 67:4822–4830PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Calistri A, Salata C, Parolin C, Palù G (2009) Role of multivesicular bodies and their components in the egress of enveloped RNA viruses. Rev Med Virol 19:21–45Google Scholar
  15. Çevik B, Kaesberg J, Smallwood S, Feller JA, Moyer SA (2004) Mapping the phosphoprotein binding site on Sendai virus NP protein assembled into nucleocapsids. Virology 325:216–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Çevik B, Smallwood S, Moyer SA (2007) Two N-terminal regions of the Sendai virus L RNA polymerase protein participate in oligomerization. Virology 363:189–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chaipan C, Kabasa D, Bertram S, Glowacka I, Steffen I, Tsegaye TS, Takeda M, Bugge TH, Kim S, Park Y, Marzi A, Pöhlmann S (2009) Proteolytic activation of the 1918 influenza virus hemagglutinin. J Virol 83:3200–3211PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chambers R, Takimoto T (2010) Trafficking of Sendai virus nucleocapsids is mediated by intracellular vesicles. PLoS One 5:e10994. doi: 10.137/journal.pone.0010994 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chandrika R, Horikami SM, Smallwood S, Moyer SA (1995) Mutations in conserved domain I of the Sendai virus L polymerase protein uncouple transcription and replication. Virology 213:352–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chattopadhyay S, Marques JT, Yamashita M, Peters KL, Smith K, Desai A, Williams BR, Sen GC (2010) Viral apoptosis is induced by IRF-3-mediated activation of bax. EMBO J 29:1762–1773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Choppin PW, Compans RW (1975) Reproduction of paramyxoviruses. In: Fraenkel-Conrat H, Wagner RR (eds) Comprehensive virology, vol 4. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Cortese CK, Feller JA, Moyer SA (2000) Mutations in domain V and the Sendai virus L polymerase protein uncouple transcription and replication and differentially affect replication in vitro and in vivo. Virology 277:387–396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Curran J (1996) Reexamination of the Sendai virus P protein domains required for RNA synthesis: a possible supplemental role for the P protein. Virology 221:130–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Curran J (1998) A role for the Sendai virus P protein trimer in RNA synthesis. J Virol 72:4274–4280PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Curran J, Kolakofsky D (1987) Identification of an additional Sendai virus non-structural protein encoded by the P/C mRNA. J Gen Virol 68:2515–2519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Curran J, Kolakofsky D (1988a) Ribosomal initiation from an ACG codon in the Sendai virus P/C mRNA. EMBO J 7:245–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Curran J, Kolakofsky D (1988b) Scanning independent ribosomal initiation of the Sendai virus X protein. EMBO J 7:2869–2874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Curran J, Kolakofsky D (1989) Scanning independent ribosomal initiation of the Sendai virus Y proteins in vitro and in vivo. EMBO J 8:521–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Curran J, Kolakofsky D (2008) Nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus RNA synthesis in vivo. Virology 371:227–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Curran J, Boeck R, Kolakofsky D (1991) The Sendai virus P gene expresses both an essential protein and an inhibitor of RNA synthesis by shuffling modules via mRNA editing. EMBO J 10:3079–3085PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Curran J, Marq J-B, Kolakofsky D (1992) The Sendai virus nonstructural C proteins specifically inhibit viral mRNA synthesis. Virology 189:647–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Curran J, Homann H, Buchholz C, Rochat S, Neubert W, Kolakofsky D (1993) The hypervariable C-terminal tail of the Sendai paramyxovirus nucleocapsid protein in required for template function but not for RNA encapsidation. J Virol 67:4358–4364PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Curran J, Pelet T, Kolakofsky D (1994) An acidic activation-like domain of the Sendai virus P protein is required for RNA synthesis and encapsidation. Virology 202:875–884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Curran J, Marq J-B, Kolakofsky D (1995) An N-terminal domain of the Sendai paramyxovirus P protein acts as a chaperone for the NP protein during the nascent chain assembly step of genome replication. J Virol 69:849–855PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. de Breyne S, Monney RS, Curran J (2004) Proteolytic processing and translation initiation: two independent mechanisms for the expression of the Sendai virus Y proteins. J Biol Chem 279:16571–16580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Delenda C, Hausmann S, Garcin D, Kolakofsky D (1997) Normal cellular replication of Sendai virus without the trans-frame, nonstructural V protein. Virology 228:55–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Demirov DG, Freed EO (2004) Retrovirus budding. Virus Res 106:87–102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Didcock L, Young DF, Goodbourn S, Randall RE (1999a) Sendai virus and simian virus 5 block activation of interferon-responsive genes: importance for virus pathogenesis. J Virol 73:3125–3133PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Didcock L, Young DF, Goodbourn S, Randall RE (1999b) The V protein of simian virus 5 inhibits interferon signalling by targeting STAT1 for proteasome-mediated degradation. J Virol 73:9928–9933PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Drexler JF, Corman VM, Müller MA, Maganda GD, Vallo P, Binger T, Gloza-Rausch F, Rasche A, Yordanov S, Seebens A, Oppong S, Sarkodie Y, Pngombo C, Lukashev AN, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Stöcker A, Carneiro AJ, Erbar S, Maisner A, Fronhoffs F, Buettner R, Kalko EK, Kruppa T, Franke CR, Kallies R, Yandoko ER, Herrler G, Reusken C, Hassanin A, Krüger DH, Matthee S, Ulrich RF, Leroy EM, Drosten C (2012) Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses. Nat Commun 3:796. doi: 10.1038/ncomms1796 Google Scholar
  41. Easterbrook JD, Kaplan JB, Glass GE, Watson J, Klein SL (2008) A survey of rodent-borne pathogens carried by wild-caught Norway rats: a potential threat to laboratory rodent colonies. Lab Anim 42:92–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Egelman EH, Wu S-S, Amrein M, Portner A, Murti G (1989) The Sendai virus nucleocapsid exists in at least four different helical states. J Virol 63:2233–2243PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Einberger H, Mertz R, Hofschneider PH, Neubert WJ (1990) Purification, renaturation, and reconstituted protein kinase activity of the Sendai virus large (L) protein: L protein phosphorylates the NP and P proteins in vitro. J Virol 64:4274–4280PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Feller JA, Smallwood S, Horikami SM, Moyer SA (2000) Mutations in conserved domains IV and VI of the large (L) subunit of the Sendai virus RNA polymerase give an spectrum of defective RNA synthesis phenotypes. Virology 269:426–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Finch JT, Gibbs AJ (1970) Observations on the suructure of the nucleocapsids of some paramyxoviruses. J Gen Virol 6:141–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Fuerst TR, Niles EG, Studier FW, Moss B (1986) Eukaryotic transient-expression system based on recombinant vaccinia virus that synthesizes bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:8122–8126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Fujii Y, Kiyotani K, Yashida T, Sakaguchi T (2001) Conserved and non-conserved regions in the Sendai virus genome: evolution of a gene possessing overlapping reading frames. Virus Genes 22:47–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Fukuhara N, Huang C, Kiyotani K, Yoshida T, Sakaguchi T (2002) Mutational analysis of the Sendai virus V protein: importance of the conserved residues for Zn binding, virus pathogenesis and efficient RNA editing. Virology 299:172–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fukumi H, Nishikawa F, Kitayama T (1954) A pneumotropic virus from mice causing hemagglutination. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 7:345–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Galinski MS, Troy RM, Banerjee AK (1992) RNA editing in the phosphoprotein gene of the human parainfluenza virus type 3. Virology 186:543–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Garcin D, Pelet T, Calain P, Roux L, Curran J, Kolakofsky D (1995) A highly recombinogenic system for the recovery of infections Sendai paramyxovirus from cDNA: generation of a novel copy-back nondefective interfering virus. EMBO J 14:6087–6094PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Garcin D, Latorre P, Kolakofsky D (1999) Sendai virus C proteins counteract the interferon-mediated induction of an antiviral state. J Virol 73:6559–6565PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gething MJ, White JM, Waterfield MD (1978) Purification of the fusion protein of Sendai virus: analysis of the NH2-terminal sequence generated during precursor activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75:2737–2740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Goff PH, Gao Q, Palese P (2012) A majority of infectious Newcastle disease virus particles packages a single genome while a minority is multiploid. J Virol 86:10852–10856PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Gosselin-Grenet AS, Mottet-Osman G, Roux L (2006) From assembly to virus particle budding: pertinence of the detergent resistant membranes. Virology 344:296–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gosselin-Grenet AS, Marq JB, Abrami L, Garcin D, Roux L (2007) Sendai virus budding in the course of an infection does not require Alix and VPS4A host factors. Virology 365:101–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gotoh B, Ogasawara T, Toyoda T, Inocencio NM, Hamaguchi M, Nagai Y (1990) An endoprotease homologous to the blood clotting factor X as a determinant of viral tropism in chick embryo. EMBO J 9:4189–4195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gotoh B, Takeuchi K, Komatsu T, Yokoo J, Kimura Y, Kato A, Kurotani A, Nagai Y (1999) Knockout of the Sendai virus C genes eliminates the viral ability to prevent the interferon-α/β mediated responses. FEBS Lett 459:205–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Gotoh B, Komatsu T, Takeuchi K, Yokoo J (2001) Paramyxovirus accessory proteins as interferon antagonists. Microbiol Immunol 45:787–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Gotoh B, Komatsu T, Takeuchi K, Yokoo J (2002) Paramyxovirus strategies for evading the interferon response. Rev Med Virol 12:337–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Gotoh B, Komatsu T, Takeuchi K, Yokoo J (2003a) The C-terminal half-fragment of the Sendai virus C protein prevents the gamma-activated factor from binding to a gamma-activated sequence site. Virology 316:29–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Gotoh B, Takeuchi K, Komatsu T, Yokoo J (2003b) The STAT2 activation process is a crucial target of Sendai virus C protein for the blockade of alpha interferon signaling. J Virol 77:3360–3370PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Grogan CC, Moyer SA (2001) Sendai virus wild-type and mutant C proteins show a direct correlation between L polymerase binding and inhibition of viral RNA synthesis. Virology 288:96–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Gubbay O, Curran J, Kolakofsky D (2001) Sendai virus genome synthesis and assembly are coupled: a possible mechanism to promote viral RNA polymerase processivity. J Gen Virol 82:2895–2903PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Gupta KC, Patwardhan S (1988) ACG, the initiator codon for Sendai virus C protein. J Biol Chem 263:8553–8556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Hamaguchi M, Yoshida T, Nishikawa K, Naruse H, Nagai Y (1983) Transcriptive complex of Newcastle disease virus. I. Both L and P proteins are required to constitute an active complex. Virology 128:105–117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Harrison MS, Sakaguchi T, Schmitt AP (2010) Paramyxovirus assembly and budding: building particles that transmit infections. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 42:1416PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hasan MK, Kato A, Shioda T, Sakai Y, Yu D, Nagai Y (1997) Creation of an infectious recombinant Sendai virus expressing the firefly luciferase gene from the 3′ proximal first locus. J Gen Virol 78:2813–2820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hasan MK, Kato A, Muranaka M, Yamaguchi R, Sakai Y, Hatano I, Tashiro M, Nagai Y (2000) Versatility of the accessory C proteins of Sendai virus. Contribution to virus assembly as an additional role. J Virol 74:5619–5628PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Heggeness MH, Scheid A, Choppin PW (1981) The relationship of conformational changes in the Sendai virus nucleocapsid to proteolytic cleavage of the NP polypeptide. Virology 114:555–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Heggeness MH, Smith PR, Choppin PW (1982) In vitro assembly of the nonglycosylated membrane protein (M) of Sendai virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 79:6232–6236PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hendricks DD, Ono E, Seyer JM, Gupta KC (1993) Phosphorylation of the Sendai virus C proteins. Virology 197:471–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Hewitt JA, Nermut MV (1977) A morphological study of the M-protein of Sendai virus. J Gen Virol 34:127–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Heylbroeck C, Balachandran S, Servant MJ, DeLuca C, Barber GN, Lin R, Hiscott J (2000) The IRF-3 transcription factor mediates Sendai virus-induced apoptosis. J Virol 74:3781–3792PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hidaka Y, Kanda T, Iwasaki K, Nomoto A, Shioda T, Shibuta H (1984) Nucleotide sequence of Sendai virus genome region covering the entire M gene and the 3′ proximal 1013 nucleotides of the F gene. Nucleic Acids Res 12:7965–7973PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Holmes DE, Moyer SA (2002) The phosphoprotein (P) binding site resides in the N terminus of the L polymerase subunit of Sendai virus. J Virol 76:3078–3083PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Homma M, Ouchi M (1973) Trypsin action on the growth of Sendai virus in tissue culture cells. III. Structural difference of Sendai viruses grown in eggs and tissue culture cells. J Virol 12:1457–1465PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Horikami SM, Curran J, Kolakofsky D, Moyer SA (1992) Comlpexes of Sendai virus NP-P and P-L proteins are required for defective interfering particle genome replication in vitro. J Virol 66:4901–4908PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Horikami SM, Hector RE, Smallwood S, Moyer SA (1997) The Sendai virus C protein binds the L polymerase protein to inhibit viral RNA synthesis. Virology 235:261–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hornung V, Ellegast J, Kim S, Brzózka K, Jung A, Kato H, Poeck H, Akira S, Conzelmann KK, Schlee M, Endres S, Hartmann G (2006) 5′-Triphosphate RNA is the ligand for RIG-I. Science 314:994–997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hosaka Y (1968) Isolation and structure of the nucleocapsid of HVJ. Virology 35:445–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hosaka Y, Kitano H, Ikeguchi S (1966) Studies on the pleomorphism of HVJ virions. Virology 29:205–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Houben K, Marion D, Tarbouriech N, Ruigrok RWH, Blanchard L (2007) Interaction of the C-terminal domains of Sendai virus N and P proteins: comparison of polymerase-nucleocapsid interactions within the paramyxovirus family. J Virol 81:6807–6816PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Howe C, Morgan C (1969) Interactions between Sendai virus and human erythrocytes. J Virol 3:70–81PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Hu C-J, Gupta KC (2000) Functional significance of alternate phosphorylation in Sendai virus P protein. Virology 268:517–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hu C, Kato A, Bowman MC, Kiyotani K, Yoshida T, Moyer SA, Nagai Y, Gupta KC (1999) Role of primary constitutive phosphorylation of Sendai virus P and V proteins in viral replication and pathogenesis. Virology 263:195–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Huang C, Kiyotani K, Fujii Y, Fukuhara N, Kato A, Nagai Y, Yoshida T, Sakaguchi T (2000) Involvement of the zinc-binding capacity of Sendai virus V protein in viral pathogenesis. J Virol 74:7834–7841PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Hughes S, Mellstrom K, Kosik E, Tamanoi F, Brugge J (1984) Mutation of a termination codon affects src initiation. Mol Cell Biol 4:1738–1746PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Huntley CC, De BP, Banerjee AK (1997) Phosphorylation of Sendai virus phosphoprotein by cellular protein kinase C ζ. J Biol Chem 272:16578–16584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Inoue M, Tokusumi Y, Ban H, Kanaya T, Tokusumi T, Nagai Y, Iida A, Hasegawa M (2003a) Nontransmissible virus-like particle formation by F-deficient Sendai virus is temperature sensitive and reduced by mutations in M and HN proteins. J Virol 77:3238–3246PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Inoue M, Tokusumi Y, Ban H, Kanaya T, Shirakura M, Tokusumi T, Hirata T, Nagai Y, Iida A, Hasegawa M (2003b) A new type of Sendai virus vector deficient in the matrix gene has lost virus particle formation and gained extensive cell-to-cell spreading. J Virol 77:6419–6429PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Irie T, Shimazu Y, Yoshida T, Sakaguchi T (2007) The YLDL sequence within Sendai virus M protein is critical for budding of virus-like particles and interacts with Alix/AIP1 independently of C protein. J Virol 81:2263–2273PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Irie T, Nagata N, Yoshida T, Sakaguchi T (2008a) Paramyxovirus Sendai virus C proteins are essential for maintenance of negative-sense RNA genome in virus particles. Virology 374:495–505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Irie T, Nagata N, Yoshida T, Sakaguchi T (2008b) Recruitment of Alix/AIP1 to the plasma membrane by Sendai virus C protein facilitates budding of virus-like particles. Virology 371:108–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Irie T, Inoue M, Sakaguchi T (2010) Significance of the YLDL motif in the M protein and Alix/AIP1 for Sendai virus budding in the context of virus infection. Virology 405:334–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Irie T, Kiyotani K, Igarashi T, Yoshida A, Sakaguchi T (2012) Inhibition of interferon regulatory factor 3 activation by paramyxovirus V protein. J Virol 86:7136–7145PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Irie T, Okamoto I, Yoshida A, Nagai Y, Sakaguchi T (2014) Sendai virus C proteins regulate viral genome and antigenome synthesis to dictate the negative genome polarity. J Virol 88:690–698Google Scholar
  98. Ishida N, Homma M (1978) Sendai virus. Adv Virus Res 23:349–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Ito T, Suzuki Y, Takada A, Kawamoto A, Otsuki K, Masuda H, Yamada M, Suzuki T, Kida H, Kawaoka Y (1997) Differences in sialic acid-galactose linkages in the chicken egg amnion and allantois influence human influenza virus receptor specificity and variant selection. J Virol 71:3357–3362PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Iwata S, Schmidt AC, Titani K, Suzuki M, Kido H, Gotoh B, Hamaguchi M, Nagai Y (1994) Assignment of disulfide bridges in the fusion glycoprotein of Sendai virus. J Virol 68:3200–3206PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Kato A, Sakai Y, Shioda T, Kondo T, Nakanishi M, Nagai Y (1996) Initiation of Sendai virus multiplication from transfected viral cDNA or RNA with negative or positive sense. Genes Cells 1:569–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Kato A, Kiyotani K, Sakai Y, Yoshida T, Nagai Y (1997a) The paramyxovirus, Sendai virus, V protein encodes a luxury function required for viral pathogenesis. EMBO J 16:578–587PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Kato A, Kiyotani K, Sakai Y, Yoshida T, Shioda T, Nagai Y (1997b) Importance of the cysteine-rich carboxyl-terminal half of V protein for Sendai virus pathogenesis. J Virol 71:7266–7272PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Kato A, Kiyotani K, Hasan MK, Shioda T, Sakai Y, Yoshida T, Nagai Y (1999) Sendai virus gene start signals are not equivalent in reinitiation capacity: moderation at the F gene. J Virol 73:9237–9246PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Kato A, Ohnishi Y, Kohase M, Saito S, Tashiro M, Nagai Y (2001) Y2, the smallest of the Sendai virus C proteins, is fully capable of both counteracting the antiviral action of interferons and inhibiting viral RNA synthesis. J Virol 75:3802–3810PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Kato A, Ohnishi Y, Hishiyama M, Kohase M, Saito S, Tashiro M, Nagai Y (2002) The amino-terminal half of Sendai virus C protein is not responsible for either counteracting the antiviral action of interferons or down- regulating viral RNA synthesis. J Virol 76:7114–7124PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Kato A, Cortese-Grogan C, Moyer SA, Sugahara F, Sakaguchi T, Kubota T, Otsuki N, Kohase M, Tashiro M, Nagai Y (2004) Characterization of the amino acid residues of sendai virus C protein that are critically involved in its interferon antagonism and RNA synthesis down-regulation. J Virol 78:7443–7454PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Kato A, Kiyotani K, Kubota T, Yoshida T, Tashiro M, Nagai Y (2007) Importance of the anti-interferon capacity of Sendai virus C protein for pathogenicity in mice. J Virol 81:3264–3271PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Kido H, Yokogoshi Y, Sakai K, Tashiro M, Kishino Y, Fukutomi A, Katunuma N (1992) Isolation and characterization of a novel trypsin-like protease found in rat bronchiolar epithelial Clara cells: a possible activator of the viral fusion glycoprotein. J Biol Chem 267:13573–13579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Kido H, Okumura Y, Yamada H, Le TQ, Yano M (2007) Proteases essential for human influenza virus entry into cells and their inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents. Curr Pharm Des 13:405–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Kimura Y, Ito Y, Shimokawa K, Nishiyama Y, Nagata I, Kitoh J (1975) Temperature-sensitive virus derived from BHK cells persistently infected with HVJ (Sendai virus). J Virol 15:55–63PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Kiyotani K, Takao S, Sakaguchi T, Yoshida T (1990) Immediate protection of mice from lethal wild-type Sendai virus (HVJ) infections by a temperature-sensitive mutant, HVJpi, possessing homologous interfering capacity. Virology 177:65–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Kiyotani K, Sakaguchi T, Kato A, Nagai Y, Yoshida T (2007) Paramyxovirus Sendai virus V protein counteracts innate virus clearance through IRF-3 activation, but not via interferon, in mice. Virology 359:82–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Klenk HD, Garten W (1994) Host cell proteases controlling virus pathogenicity. Trends Microbiol 2:39–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Kolakofsky D, Bruschi A (1975) Antigenomes in Sendai virions and Sendai virus-infected cells. Virology 66:185–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Kolakofsky D, Boy de la Tour E, Bruschi A (1974) Self-annealing of Sendai virus RNA. J Virol 14:33–39PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Kolakofsky D, Pelet T, Garcin D, Hausmann S, Curran J, Roux L (1998) Paramyxovirus RNA synthesis and the requirement for hexamer genome length: the rule of six revisited. J Virol 72:891–899PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Kolokoltsov AA, Deniger D, Fleming EH, Roberts NJ Jr, Karpilow JM, Davey RA (2007) Small interfering RNA profiling reveals key role of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and early endosome formation for infection by respiratory syncytial virus. J Virol 81:7786–7800PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Komatsu T, Takeuchi K, Yokoo J, Tanaka Y, Gotoh B (2000) Sendai virus blocks alpha interferon signaling to signal transducers and activators of transcription. J Virol 74:2477–2480PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Komatsu T, Takeuchi K, Yokoo J, Gotoh B (2002) Sendai virus C protein impairs both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation processes of Stat1. FEBS Lett 511:139–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Kondo T, Yoshida T, Miura N, Nakanishi M (1993) Temperature sensitive phenotype of a mutant Sendai virus strain is caused by its insufficient accumulation of the M protein. J Biol Chem 268:21924–21930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Koyama AH, Ogawa M, Kato A, Nagai Y, Adachi A (2001) Lack of apoptosis in Sendai virus-infected Hep-2 cells without participation of viral antiapoptosis gene. Microbes Infect 3:1115–1121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Koyama AH, Irie H, Kato A, Nagai Y, Adachi A (2003) Virus multiplicaiton and induction of apoptosis by Sendai virus: role of the C proteins. Microbes Infect 5:373–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Kozak M (1984) Selection of initiation sites by eucaryotic ribosomes: effect of inserting AUG triplets upstream from the coding sequence for preproinsulin. Nucleic Acids Res 12:3873–3893PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Kozak M (1987) Effects of intercistronic length on the efficiency of reinitiation by eucaryotic ribosomes. Mol Cell Biol 7:3438–3445PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Kurotani A, Kiyotani K, Kato A, Shioda T, Sakai Y, Mizumoto K, Yoshida T, Nagai Y (1998) The Sendai virus, C proteins are categorically nonessential gene products but silencing their expression severely impairs viral replecation and pathogenesis. Genes Cells 3:111–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Kuroya M, Ishida N, Shiratori T (1953) Newborn virus pneumonitis (type Sendai) II. Report: The isolation of a new virus possessing hemagglutinin activity. Yokohama Med Bull 4:217–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Lamb RA, Choppin PW (1977a) The synthesis of Sendai virus polypeptides in infected cells. II. Instracellular distribution of polypeptides. Virology 81:371–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Lamb RA, Choppin PW (1977b) The synthesis of Sendai virus polypeptides in infected cells. III. Phosphorylation of polypeptides. Virology 81:382–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Lamb RA, Parks GD (2007) Paramyxoviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM (eds) Fields virology, vol 1, 5th edn. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 1449–1496Google Scholar
  131. Lamb RA, Mahy BW, Choppin PW (1976) The synthesis of Sendai virus polypeptides in infected cells. Virology 69:116–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Latorre P, Kolakofsky D, Curran J (1998) Sendai virus Y proteins are initiated by a ribosomal shunt. Mol Cell Biol 18:5021–5031PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Leyrer S, Neubert WJ, Sedlmeier R (1998) Rapid and efficient recovery of Sendai virus from cDNA: factors influencing recombinant virus rescue. J Virol Methods 75:47–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Li HO, Zhu Y-F, Asakawa M, Kuma H, Hirata T, Ueda Y, Lee Y-S, Fukumura M, Iida A, Kato T, Nagai Y, Hasegawa M (2000) A cytoplasmic RNA vector derived from non-transmissible Sendai virus with efficient gene transfer and expression. J Virol 74:6564–6569PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Li M, Schmitt PT, Li Z, McCrory TS, He B, Schmitt AP (2009) Mumps virus matrix, fusion, and nucleocapsid proteins cooperate for efficient production of virus-like particles. J Virol 83:7261–7272PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Liu C-C, Simonsen CC, Levinson AD (1984) Initiation of translation at internal AUG codons in mammalian cells. Nature (Lond) 309:82–85Google Scholar
  137. Loney C, Mottet-Osman G, Roux L, Bhella D (2009) Paramyxovirus ultrastructure and genome packaging: cryo-electron tomography of Sendai virus. J Virol 83:8191–8197. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00693-09 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Luque LE, Russell CJ (2007) Spring-loaded heptad repeat residues regulate the expression and activation of paramyxovirus fusion protein. J Virol 81:3130–3141PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Luque LE, Bridges OA, Mason JN, Boyd KL, Portner A, Russell CJ (2010) Residues in the heptad repeat a region of the fusion protein modulate the virulence of Sendai virus in mice. J Virol 84:810–821. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01990-09 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Lyles DS, Rupprecht CE (2007) Rhabdoviridae. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM (eds) Fields virology, vol 1, 5th edn. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 1363–1408Google Scholar
  141. Markwell MA, Fox CF (1980) Protein–protein interactions within paramyxoviruses identified by native disulfide bonding or reversible chemical cross-linking. J Virol 33:152–166PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Markwell MAK, Paulson JC (1980) Sendai virus utilizes specific sialyloligosaccharides as host cell receptor determinants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:5693–5697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Markwell MA, Portner A, Schwartz AL (1985) An alternative route of infection for viruses: entry by means of the asialoglycoprotein receptor of a Sendai virus mutant lacking its attachment protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:978–982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Marq J-B, Brini A, Kolakofsky D, Garcin D (2007) Targeting of the Sendai virus C protein to the plasma membrane via a peptide-only membrane anchor. J Virol 81:3187–3197PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Matsuoka Y, Curran J, Pelet T, Kolakofsky D, Ray R, Compans RW (1991) The P gene of human parainfluenza virus type 1 encodes P and C proteins but not a cysteine-rich V protein. J Virol 65:3406–3410PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Miyauchi K, Kim Y, Latinovic O, Morozov V, Melikyan GB (2009) HIV enters cells via endocytosis and dynamin-dependent fusion with endosomes. Cell 137:433–444PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Morgan C, Howe C (1968) Structure and development of viruses as observed in the electron microscope. IX. Entry of parainfluenza I (Sendai) virus. J Virol 2:1122–1132PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Mottet G, Roux L (1989) Budding efficiency of Sendai virus nucleocapsids: influence of size and ends of the RNA. Virus Res 14:175–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Mottet-Osman G, Iseni F, Pelet T, Wiznerowics M, Garcin D, Roux L (2007) Suppression of the Sendai virus M protein through a novel short interfering RNA approach inhibits viral particle production but does not affect viral RNA analysis. J Virol 81:2861–2868PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Moyer SA, Baker SC, Lessard JL (1986) Tublin: a factor necessary for the synthesis of both Sendai virus and vesicular stomatitis virus RNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:5405–5409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Murphy AM, Grdzelishvili VZ (2009) Identification of Sendai virus L protein amino acid residues affecting viral mRNA cap methylation. J Virol 83:1669–1681. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01438-08 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Myers TM, Moyer SA (1997) An amino-terminal domain of the Sendai virus nucleocapsid protein is required for template function. J Virol 71:918–924PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Nagai Y (1993) Protease-dependent virus tropism and pathogenicity. Trends Microbiol 1:81–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Nagai Y (1995) Virus activation by host proteinases. A pivotal role in the spread of infection, tissue tropism and pathogenicity. Microbiol Immunol 39:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Nagai Y (1999) Paramyxovirus replication and pathogenesis. Reverse genetics transforms understanding. Rev Med Virol 9:83–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Nagai Y, Kato A (1999) Paramyxovirus reverse genetics is coming of age. Microbiol Immunol 43:613–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Nagai Y, Kato A (2004) Accessory genes of the Paramyxoviridae, a large family of nonsegmented negative-strand and RNA viruses, as a focus of active investigation by reverse genetics. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 283:197–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Nagai Y, Yoshida T (1984) Viral pathogenesis: mechanism of acute and persistent infections with paramyxoviruses. Nagoya J Med Sci 46:1–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Nagai Y, Ogura H, Klenk H-D (1976a) Studies on the assembly of the envelope of Newcastle disease virus. Virology 69:523–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Nagai Y, Klenk H-D, Rott R (1976b) Proteolytic cleavage of the viral glycoproteins and its significance for the virulence of Newcastle disease virus. Virology 72:494–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Nagai Y, Hamaguchi M, Toyoda T, Yoshida T (1983a) The uncoating of paramyxoviruses may not require a low pH mediated step. Virology 130:263–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Nagai Y, Yoshida T, Hamaguchi M, Nagura H, Hasegawa H, Yoshimura S, Watanabe K (1983b) Subcellular location of the major protein antigens of paramyxoviruses revealed by immunoperoxidase cytochemistry. Microbiol Immunol 27:531–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Nagai Y, Inoue M, Iida A, Zhu Y-F, Hasegawa M, Kato A, Matano T (2007) Sendai virus engineering: from reverse genetics to vector development. In: Hefferon KL (ed) Virus expression vectors. Transworld Research Network, Kerala, pp 123–146Google Scholar
  164. Nagai Y, Takakura A, Irie T, Yonemitsu Y, Gotoh B (2011) Sendai virus evolution from mouse pathogen to a state-of-the-art tool in virus research and biotechnology. In: Samal SK (ed) The biology of paramyxoviruses. Caister Academic, NorfolkGoogle Scholar
  165. Nagata I, Kimura Y, Ito Y, Tanaka T (1972) Temperature-sensitive phenomenon of viral maturation observed in BHK cells persistently infected with HVJ. Virology 49:453–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Nishimura K, Segawa H, Goto T, Morishita M, Masago A, Takahashi H, Ohmiya Y, Sakaguchi T, Asada M, Imamura T, Shimotono K, Takayama K, Yoshida T, Nakanishi M (2007) Persistent and stable gene expression by a cytoplasmic RNA replicon based on a noncytopathic variant Sendai virus. J Biol Chem 282:27383–27391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Nishio M, Nagata A, Tsurudome M, Ito M, Kawano M, Komada H, Ito Y (2004) Recombinant Sendai viruses with L1618V mutation in their L polymerase protein establish persistent infection, but not temperature sensitivity. Virology 329:289–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Ogasawara T, Gotoh B, Suzuki H, Asaka J, Shimokata K, Rott R, Nagai Y (1992) Expression of factor X and its significance for the determination of paramyxovirus tropism in the chick embryo. EMBO J 11:467–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Ogino T, Kobayashi M, Iwama M, Mizumoto K (2005) Sendai virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase L protein catalyzes cap methylation of virus-specific mRNA. J Biol Chem 280:4429–4435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Ohnishi Y, Shioda T, Nakayama K, Iwata S, Gotoh B, Hamaguchi M, Nagai Y (1995) A furin-defective cell line is able to process correctly the gp160 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol 68:4075–4079Google Scholar
  171. Palese P, Zheng H, Engelhardt OG, Pleschka S, García-Sastre A (1996) Negative-strand RNA viruses: genetic engineering and applications. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:11354–11358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Pennington TH, Pringle CR (1978) Negative strand viruses in enucleate cells. In: Mahy BWJ, Barry RD (eds) Negative strand viruses and the host cell. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  173. Peters K, Chattopadhyay S, Sen GC (2008) IRF-3 activation by Sendai virus infection is required for cellular apoptosis and avoidance of persistence. J Virol 82:3500–3508PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Poch O, Blumberg BM, Bougueleret L, Tordo N (1990) Sequence comparison of five polymerases (L proteins) of unsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses: theoretical assignment of functional domains. J Gen Virol 71:1153–1162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Portner A, Murti KG (1986) Localization of P, NP, and M proteins on Sendai virus nucleocapsid using immunogold labeling. Virology 150:469–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Portner A, Gupta KC, Seyer JM, Beachey EH, Kingsbury DW (1986) Localization and characterization of Sendai virus nonstructural C and C’ proteins by antibodies against synthetic peptides. Virus Res 6:109–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Portner A, Murti KG, Morgan EM, Kingsbury DW (1988) Antibodies against Sendai virus L protein: distribution of the protein in nucleocapsids revealed by immunoelectron microscopy. Virology 163:236–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Qanungo KR, Shaji D, Mathur M, Banerjee AK (2004) Two RNA polymerase complexes from vesicular stomatitis virus-infected cells that carry out transcription and replication of genome RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:5952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Radoshitzky SR, Dong L, Chi X, Clester JC, Retterer C, Spurgers K, Kuhn JH, Sandwick S, Ruthel G, Kota K, Bolts D, Warren T, Kranzusch PJ, Whelan SPJ, Bavari S (2010) Infectious Lassa virus, but not filoviruses, is restricted by BST-2/tetherin. J Virol 84:10569–10580. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00103-10 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Randall RE, Goodbourn S (2008) Interferons and viruses: an interplay between induction, signalling, antiviral responses and virus countermeasures. J Gen Virol 89:1–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Randall RE, Russell WC (1991) Paramyxovirus persistence: consequences for host and virus. In: Kingsbury DW (ed) The paramyxoviruses. Plenum, New York, pp 299–321Google Scholar
  182. Re GG (1991) Deletion mutants of paramyxoviruses. In: Kingsbury DW (ed) The paramyxoviruses. Plenum, New York, pp 275–298Google Scholar
  183. Re GG, Kingsbury DW (1986) Nucleotide sequences that affect replicative and transcriptional efficiencies of Sendai virus deletion mutants. J Virol 58:578–582PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Rima BK, Martin SJ (1976) Persistent infection of tissue culture cells by RNA viruses. Med Microbiol Immunol 162:89–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Roux L, Holland JJ (1979) Role of defective interfering particles of Sendai virus in persistent infections. Virology 93:91–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Roux L, Holland JJ (1980) Viral genome synthesis in BHK-21 cells persistently infected with Sendai virus. Virology 100:53–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Ryan KW, Morgan EM, Portner A (1991) Two noncontiguous regions of Sendai virus P protein combine to form a single nucleocapsid binding domain. Virology 180:126–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Sakaguchi T, Toyoda T, Gotoh B, Inocencio NM, Kuma K, Miyata T, Nagai Y (1989) Newcastle disease virus evolution. I. Multiple lineages defined by sequence variability of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene. Virology 169:260–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Sakaguchi T, Kiyotani K, Kato A, Asakawa M, Fujii Y, Nagai Y, Yoshida T (1997) Phosphorylation of the Sendai virus M protein is not essential for virus replication either in vitro or in vivo. Virology 235:360–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Sakaguchi T, Uchiyama T, Huang C, Fukuhara N, Kiyotani K, Nagai Y, Yoshida T (2002) Alteration of Sendai virus morphogenesis and nucleocapsid incorporation due to mutation of cycteine residues of the matrix protein. J Virol 76:1682–1690PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Sakaguchi T, Kato A, Sugahara F, Shimazu Y, Inoue M, Kiyotani K, Nagai Y, Yoshida T (2005) AIP1/Alix is a binding partner of Sendai virus C protein and facilitates virus budding. J Virol 79:8933–8941PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Sakaguchi T, Kato A, Kiyotani K, Yoshida T, Nagai Y (2008) Studies on the paramyxovirus accessory genes by reverse genetics in the Sendai virus–mouse system. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci 84:439–451PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Sanderson CM, Avalos R, Kundu A, Nayak DP (1995) Interaction of Sendai virus F, HN, and M proteins with host cytoskeletal and lipid components in Sendai virus-infected BHK cells. Virology 209:701–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Scheid A, Choppin PW (1974) Identification of biological activities of paramyxovirus glycoproteins. Activation of cell fusion, hemolysis, and infectivity of proteolytic cleavage of an inactive precursor protein of Sendai virus. Virology 57:475–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Schmitt AP, Leser GP, Morita E, Sundquist WI, Lamb RA (2005) Evidence for a new viral late domain core sequence, FPIV, necessary for budding of a paramyxovirus. J Virol 79:2988–2997PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Schnell MJ, Mebatsion T, Conzelmann K-K (1994) Infectious rabies virus from cloned cDNA. EMBO J 13:4195–4203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Segawa H, Yamashita T, Kawakita M, Taira H (2000) Functional analysis of the individual oligosaccharide chains of Sendai virus fusion protein. J Biochem 128:65–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Segawa H, Inakawa A, Yamashita T, Taira H (2003) Functional analysis of individual oligosaccharide chains of Sendai virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 67:592–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Shimazu Y, Takao SI, Irie T, Kiyotani K, Yoshida T, Sakaguchi T (2008) Contribution of the leader sequence to homologous viral interference among Sendai virus strains. Virology 372:64–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Shimizu K, Ishida N (1975) The smallest protein of Sendai virus: its candidate function of binding nucleocapsid to envelope. Virology 67:427–437Google Scholar
  201. Shimizu YK, Shimizu K, Ishida N, Homma M (1976) On the study of Sendai virus hemolysis. II. Morphological study of envelope fusion and hemolysis. Virology 71:48–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Shioda T, Hidaka Y, Kanda T, Shibuta H, Nomoto A, Iwasaki K (1983) Sequence of 3,687 nt from the 3′ end of Sendai virus genome RNA and the predicted amino acid sequences of viral NP, P and C proteins. Nucleic Acids Res 11:7317–7330PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Shioda T, Iwasaki K, Shibuta H (1986) Determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of the Sendai virus genome RNA and the predicted amino acid sequence of the F, HN, and L proteins. Nucleic Acids Res 14:1545–1563PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Shirogane Y, Takeda T, Iwasaki M, Ishiguro N, Takeuchi H, Nakatsu Y, Tahara M, Kikuta H, Yanagi Y (2008) Efficient multiplication of human metapneumovirus in Vero cells expressing the transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS2. J Virol 82:8942–8946PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Smallwood S, Ryan KW, Moyer SA (1994) Deletion analysis defines a carboxyl-proximal region of Sendai virus P protein that binds to the polymerase L protein. Virology 202:154–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Smallwood S, Hövel T, Neubert WJ, Moyer SA (2002a) Different substitutions at conserved amino acids in domains II and III in the Sendai L RNA polymerase protein inactivate viral RNA synthesis. Virology 304:135–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Smallwood S, Çevik B, Moyer SA (2002b) Intragenic complementation and oligomerization of the L subunit of the Sendai virus RNA polymerase. Virology 304:235–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Sriwilaijaroen N, Kondo S, Yagi H, Wilairat P, Hiramatsu H, Ito M, Ito Y, Kato K, Suzuki Y (2009) Analysis of N-glycans in embryonated chicken egg choriollantoic and amniotic cells responsible for binding and adaptation of human and avian influenza viruses. Glycoconj J 26:433–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Sugahara F, Uchiyama T, Watanabe H, Shimazu Y, Kuwayama M, Fujii Y, Kiyotani K, Adachi A, Kohno N, Yoshida T, Sakaguchi T (2004) Paramyxovirus Sendai virus-like particle formation by expression of multiple viral proteins and acceleration of its release by C protein. Virology 325:1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Suzuki Y, Suzuki T, Matsumoto M (1983) Isolation and characterization of receptor sialoglycoprotein for hemagglutinating virus of Japan (Sendai virus) from bovine erythrocyte membrane. J Biochem (Tokyo) 93:1621–1633Google Scholar
  211. Suzuki Y, Suzuki T, Matsunaga M, Matsumoto M (1985) Gangliosides as paramyxovirus receptor. Structural requirement of sialo-oligosaccharides in receptors for hemagglutinating virus of Japan (Sendai virus) and Newcastle disease virus. J Biochem (Tokyo) 97:1189–1199Google Scholar
  212. Suzuki H, Harada A, Hayashi Y, Wada K, Asaka J, Gotoh B, Ogasaweara T, Nagai Y (1991) Primary structure of the virus activating protease from chick embryo; its identity with the blood clotting factor Xa. FEBS Lett 283:281–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Takimoto T, Bousse T, Coronel EC, Scroggs RA, Portner A (1998) Cytoplasmic domain of Sendai virus HN protein contains a specific sequence required for its incorporation into virions. J Virol 72:9747–9754PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Tamura T, Yamashita T, Segawa H, Taira H (2002) N-linked oligosaccharide chains of Sendai virus fusion protein determine the interaction with endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperones. FEBS Lett 513:153–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Tapparel C, Hausmann S, Pelet T, Curran J, Kolakofsky D, Roux L (1997) Inhibition of Sendai virus genome replication due to promoter-increased selectivity: a possible role for the accessory C proteins. J Virol 71:9588–9599PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Tapparel C, Maurice D, Roux L (1998) The activity of Sendai virus genomic and antigenomic promoters requires a second element past the leader template regions: a motif, (GNNNNN)3, is essential for replication. J Virol 72:3117–3128PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Tarbouriech N, Curran J, Ebel C, Ruigrok RWH, Burmeister WP (2000a) On the domain structure and the polymerization state of the Sendai virus P protein. Virology 266:99–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Tarbouriech N, Curran J, Ruigrok RWH, Burmeister WP (2000b) Tetrameric coiled coil domain of Sendai virus phosphoprotein. Nat Struct Biol 7:777–781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Tashiro M, Yokogoshi Y, Tobita K, Seto JT, Rott R, Kido H (1992) Tryptase Clara, an activating protease for Sendai virus in rat lungs, is involved in pneumopathogenicity. J Virol 66:7211–7216PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Toyoda T, Sakaguchi T, Imai K, Inocencio NM, Gotoh B, Hamaguchi M, Nagai Y (1987) Structural comparison of the cleavage-activation site of the fusion glycoprotein between virulent and avirulent strains of Newcastle disease virus. Virology 158:242–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Toyoda T, Sakaguchi T, Hirota H, Gotoh B, Kuma K, Miyata T, Nagai Y (1989) Newcastle disease virus evolution. II. Lack of gene recombination in generating virulent and avirulent strains. Virology 169:273–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Tozawa H, Watanabe M, Ishida N (1973) Structural components of Sendai virus. Serological and physicochemical characterization of hemagglutinin subunit associated with neuraminidase activity. Virology 55:242–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Vidal S, Curran J, Kolakofsky D (1990a) Editing of the Sendai virus P/C mRNA by G insertion occurs during mRNA synthesis via a virus-encoded activity. J Virol 64:239–246PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Vidal S, Curran J, Kolakofsky D (1990b) A stuttering model for paramyxovirus P mRNA editing. EMBO J 9:2017–2022PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Watanabe R, Leser GP, Lamb RA (2011) Influenza virus is not restricted by tetherin whereas influenza VLP production is restricted by teterin. Virology 417:50–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Whelan SP, Wertz GW (2002) Transcription and replication initiate at separate sites on the vesicular stomatitis virus genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:9178–9183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Whelan SPJ, Barr JN, Wertz GW (2004) Transcription and replication of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 283:61–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Wiegand MA, Bossow S, Schlecht S, Neubert WJ (2007) De novo synthesis of N and P proteins as a key step in Sendai gene expression. J Virol 81:13835–13844. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00914-07 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Yamada H, Hayata S, Omata-Yamada T, Taira H, Mizumoto K, Iwasaki K (1990) Association of the Sendai virus C protein with nucleocapsids. Arch Virol 113:245–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Yoshida T, Nagai Y, Yoshii S, Maeno K, Matsumoto T, Hoshino M (1976) Membrane (M) protein of HVJ (Sendai virus): its role in virus assembly. Virology 71:143–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Yoshida T, Nagai Y, Maeno K, Iinuma M, Hamaguchi M, Matsumoto T (1979) Studies on the role of M protein in virus assembly using a TS mutant of HVJ (Sendai virus). Virology 92:139–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Yoshida T, Hamaguchi M, Naruse H, Nagai Y (1982) Persistent infection by a temperature-sensitive mutant isolated from a Sendai virus (HVJ) carrier culture: its initiation and maintenance without aid of defective interfering particles. Virology 120:329–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Yoshima H, Nakanishi M, Okada Y, Kobata A (1981) Carbohydrate structures of HVJ (Sendai virus) glycoproteins. J Biol Chem 256:5355–5361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Young DF, Didcock L, Goodbourn S, Randall RE (2000) Paramyxoviridae use distinct virus-specific mechanisms to circumvent the interferon response. Virology 269:383–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Youngner JS, Preble OT (1980) Viral persistence: evolution of viral populations. In: Frankel-Conrat H, Wagner RR (eds) Comprehensive virology, vol 16. Plenum, New York/London, pp 73–135Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.RIKEN Center of Research Network for Infectious DiseasesTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Division of Radiological Protection & Biology and Division of Quality AssuranceNational Institute of Infectious DiseasesTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations