Application of Sliding Landmark Method for Morphological Analysis of Modern Japanese Neurocranial Shape
We apply the sliding semi-landmark method for the analysis of morphological variability in the modern Japanese population. Specifically, we prepare two kinds of template landmark configurations that will be projected onto and slid along each of the samples. We then analyze the variability in the neurocranial shape in the modern Japanese population by means of a landmark-based geometric morphometric method. We also analyze the differences in the patterns of extracted morphological variances due to different landmark configurations. Our results demonstrate that the morphological variabilities extracted by the two different template configurations generally correspond to each other, and indicate that if a sufficient number of semi-landmarks are evenly distributed across the neurocranial surface, the global tendency of the morphological variability to be extracted may not be affected by the choice of template configurations. Furthermore, the most predominant shape variability found in the cranial vault in the modern Japanese population is the brachycephalic/dolichocephalic tendency. The present semi-landmark-based approach will serve as a basis for detailed quantification and comparisons of the human neurocranial shape.
KeywordsCraniometry Geometric morphometrics Semi-landmark Skull
We wish to express our sincere gratitude to Prof. Takeru Akazawa (Kochi Institute of Technology) for giving us an opportunity to participate in this research project and for his continuous guidance and support throughout the course of the present study. This study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas “Replacement of Neanderthals by Modern Humans: Testing Evolutionary Models of Learning” from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.
- Bookstein FL (1991) Tools for landmarks data: geometry and biology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Gunz P, Mitteroecker P, Bookstein FL (2005) Semilandmarks in three dimensions. In: Slice DE (ed) Modern morphometrics in physical anthropology. Kluwer/Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Makishima H, Ogihara N (2009) Three-dimensional geometric morphometric study of craniofacial variations in Jomon populations. Anthropol Sci (Jpn Ser) 117:11–21Google Scholar
- Morita Y, Ogihara N, Kanai T, Suzuki H (2013) Quantification of neurocranial shape variation using shortest paths connecting pairs of anatomical landmarks. Am J Phys Anthropol 151:658–666Google Scholar
- O’Higgins P, Jones N (2006) Tools for statistical shape analysis. Hull York Medical School. http://hyms.fme.googlepages.com/resources