Introduction and Overview



The number of Japanese exporters continued to increase in the decade after 2000. Figure 1, using data from the Basic Survey of Japanese Business Structure and Activities which covers Japanese manufacturing firms with over 50 employees and more than 30 million yen of capital stock, shows that the number of exporters in the manufacturing sector increased from 3,762 firms in 2000 to 4,518 firms in 2010. Figure 1 also depicts the type of exporters that increased, with firms categorized into deciles by export ratio, which is defined as the ratio of their exports to total sales. This figure reveals an increase of exporters classified in the export ratio categories of 10 % or more. This trend is similar to even non-manufacturing firms, including wholesalers, retailers, and firms in the service sectors.


Foreign Direct Investment Destination Country Japanese Firm Extensive Margin Foreign Subsidiary 


  1. Bernard, A. B., & Jensen, J. B. (1995). Exporters, jobs, and wages in U.S. manufacturing: 1976–87. In Brookings papers on economic activity: Microeconomics (pp. 67–112).Google Scholar
  2. Bernard, A. B., & Jensen, J. B. (1999). Exceptional exporter performance: Cause, effect, or both? Journal of International Economics, 47(1), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bernard, A. B., Jensen, J. B., Redding, S. J., & Schott, P. K. (2007). Firms in international trade. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21(3), 105–130.Google Scholar
  4. Feenstra, R. C., & Hanson, G. (2005). Ownership and control in outsourcing to China: Estimating the property rights theory of the firm. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 120(2), 729–761.Google Scholar
  5. Helpman, E., Melitz, M. J., & Yeaple, S. R. (2004). Export versus FDI with heterogeneous firms. American Economic Review, 94(1), 300–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Mayer, T., & Ottaviano, G. I. P. (2007). The happy few: The internationalisation of European firms. Bruegel Blueprint Series, Bruegel, Brussels.Google Scholar
  7. Melitz, M. J. (2003). The impact of trade on intra-industry reallocations and aggregate industry productivity. Econometrica, 71(6), 1695–1725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Rauch, J. E., & Trindade, V. (2003). Information, international substitutability, and globalization. American Economic Review, 93(3), 775–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Todo, Y. (2011). Quantitative evaluation of determinants of export and FDI: Firm-level evidence from Japan. The World Economy, 34(3), 355–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Todo, Y., & Sato, H. (2011). Effects of CEOs’ characteristics on internationalization of small and medium enterprises in Japan. RIETI discussion paper, No. 11-E-026.Google Scholar
  11. Yeaple, S. R. (2009). Firm heterogeneity and the structure of U.S. multinational activity. Journal of International Economics, 78(2), 206–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Ryuhei Wakasugi 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EconomicsGakushuin UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Center for Economic Growth StrategyYokohama National UniversityYokohamaJapan
  3. 3.Research Institute of EconomyTrade and Industry (RIETI)TokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations