Advertisement

Freshwater Eels and Humans in Taiwan

  • Wann-Nian Tzeng
Chapter
Part of the Humanity and the Sea book series (HUMSEA)

Abstract

Freshwater eels (Anguilla spp.) are an important food resource and support large-scale aquaculture in some oriental countries. Taiwan’s climate is ideal for eel stocks living in the wild and for aquaculture. Indeed, the country’s aquaculture industry, which was initiated in the 1960s and peaked in the early 1990s, contributed greatly to Taiwan’s economic development at the time, though much of that production has since been transferred to mainland China. Despite their economic importance to humans, however, many people are not that familiar with eels, so this chapter supplements material presented elsewhere in this book by documenting aspects of eel distribution and biology, mythology, cuisine, etc, in Taiwan.

Keywords

Kuroshio Current North Equatorial Current Mariana Island Daily Growth Increment Climate Change Index 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

I thank the National Science Council of the Republic of China for long-term financial support for eel research, Brian Knights and Yu-San Han for providing unpublished data, Nico Jose Leander for producing much of the artwork, and Brian M. Jessop, Chu-Fa Tsai and book series editor Andrew I. L. Payne for comments, including grammatical improvements, on various earlier drafts.

References

  1. Campana SE (1999) Chemistry and composition of fish otoliths: pathways, mechanisms and applications. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 188:263–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chang S-T, Yeh M-F, Chen R-T, Tsai C-L, Shen K-N, Tsai C-F (2008) A giant exotic speckled longfin eel (Anguilla reinhardtii Steindachner, 1867) captured from the Sun Moon Lake. Endem Species Res (Taipei) 10(2):59–64Google Scholar
  3. Chang K-C, Huang Y-S, Liu F-K (2012) How many Anguilla species in the Taiwan waters? In: Proceedings of the 15th East Asia eel resource consortium, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan, p 35Google Scholar
  4. Cheng P-W, Tzeng W-N (1996) Timing of metamorphosis and estuarine arrival across the dispersal range of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 131:87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Daverat F, Limburg KE, Thibault I, Shiao J-C, Dodson JJ, Caron F, Tzeng W-N et al (2006) Phenotypic plasticity of habitat use by three temperate eel species, Anguilla anguilla, A. japonica and A. rostrata. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 308:231–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Han Y-S, Chang C-W, He J-T, Tzeng W-N (2001) Validation of the short-finned eel Anguilla bicolor pacifica in natural waters of Taiwan. Acta Zool Taiwanica 12:9–19Google Scholar
  7. Han Y-S, Yu C-H, Yu H-T, Chang C-W, Liao I-C, Tzeng W-N (2002) The exotic American eel in Taiwan: ecological implications. J Fish Biol 60:1608–1612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Han Y-S, Hung C-L, Liao Y-F, Tzeng W-N (2010) Population genetic structure of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica: panmixia at spatial and temporal scales. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 401:221–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Han Y-S, Zhang H, Tseng Y-H, Shen M-L (2012) Larval Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) as sub-surface current bio-tracers in East Asia continental shelf. Fish Oceanogr 21:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hsue W-C (2012) Cost and benefit analysis of Anguilla japonica and A. marmorata aquaculture in Taiwan. Master thesis, Institute of Fisheries Science, College of Life Science, National Taiwan UniversityGoogle Scholar
  11. Jessop BM, Shiao J-C, Iizuka Y, Tzeng W-N (2006) Migration of juvenile American eels Anguilla rostrata between freshwater and estuary, as revealed by otolith microchemistry. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 310:219–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kimura S, Döös K, Coward AC (1999) Numerical simulation to resolve the issue of downstream migration of the Japanese eel. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 186:303–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kuo H (1971) Approach of eel elvers to the land in Taiwan. Fish Cult 8:52–56 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  14. Lamson HM, Cairns DK, Shiao J-C, Iizuka Y, Tzeng W-N (2009) American eel, Anguilla rostrata, growth in fresh and salt water: implications for conservation and aquaculture. Fish Manag Ecol 16:306–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Leander NJ, Shen K-N, Chen R-T, Tzeng W-N (2012) Species composition and seasonal occurrence of recruiting glass eels (Anguilla spp.) in the Hsiukuluan River, eastern Taiwan. Zool Stud 51:59–71Google Scholar
  16. Liao I-C, Kuo C-L, Tzeng W-N, Hwang S-T, Wu C-L, Wang C-H, Wang Y-T (1996) The first time of leptocephali of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica collected by Taiwanese researchers. J Taiwan Fish Res 4(2):107–116Google Scholar
  17. Lin Y-J, Tzeng W-N (2010) Vital population statistics based on length frequency analysis of the exploited Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) stock in the Kao-Ping River, southern Taiwan. J Appl Ichthyol 26:424–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lin S-H, Chang S-L, Iizuka Y, Chen T-I, Liu F-G, Su M-S, Su W-C (2009) Use of mark-recapture and otolith microchemistry on the study of the migratory behavior and habitat use of Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica). J Taiwan Fish Res 17(2):47–65Google Scholar
  19. Lin Y-J, Chang Y-J, Sun C-L, Tzeng W-N (2010) Evaluation of the Japanese eel fishery in the lower reaches of the Kao-Ping River, southwestern Taiwan using a per-recruit analysis. Fish Res 106:329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pannella G (1971) Fish otoliths: daily growth layers and periodical patterns. Science 173:1124–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Shiao J-C, Iizuka Y, Chang C-W, Tzeng W-N (2003) Disparities in habitat use and migratory behavior between tropical eel Anguilla marmorata and temperate eel A. japonica in four Taiwanese rivers. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 261:233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shiao J-C, Ložys L, Iizuka Y, Tzeng W-N (2006) Migratory patterns and contribution of stocking to the population of European eel in Lithuanian waters as indicated by otolith Sr:Ca ratios. J Fish Biol 69:749–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Teng H-Y, Lin Y-S, Tzeng C-S (2009) A new Anguilla species and a reanalysis of the phylogeny of freshwater eels. Zool Stud 48:808–822Google Scholar
  24. Tesch F-W (2003) The eel, 5th edn. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 408 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Thibault I, Dodson JJ, Caron F, Tzeng W-N, Iizuka Y, Shiao J-C (2007) Facultative catadromy in American eels: testing the conditional strategy hypothesis. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 344:219–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tsukamoto K (1992) Discovery of the spawning area for Japanese eel. Nature 356:789–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tsukamoto K, Arai T (2001) Facultative catadromy of the eel Anguilla japonica between freshwater and seawater habitats. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 220:265–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tsukamoto K, Otake T, Mochioka N, Lee T-W, Fricke H, Inagaki T, Aoyama J et al (2003) Seamounts, new moon and eel spawning: the search for the spawning site of the Japanese eel. Environ Biol Fishes 66:221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tzeng W-N (1982) Newly record of the elver, Anguilla celebesensis Kaup, from Taiwan. Chin Biosci (Taipei) 19:57–66 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  30. Tzeng W-N (1983) Species identification and commercial catch of the anguillid elvers from Taiwan. China Fish Mon 366:16–23 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  31. Tzeng W-N (1984) An estimate of the exploitation rate of Anguilla japonica elvers immigrating into the coastal waters off Shuang-Chi River, Taiwan. Bull Inst Zool, Academia Sinica 23:173–180Google Scholar
  32. Tzeng W-N (1985) Immigration timing and activity rhythms of the eel, Anguilla japonica, elvers in the estuary of northern Taiwan, with emphasis on environmental influences. Bull Jap Soc Fish Oceanogr 47(48):11–28Google Scholar
  33. Tzeng W-N (1990) Relationship between growth rate and age at recruitment of Anguilla japonica elvers in a Taiwan estuary as inferred from otolith growth increments. Mar Biol 107:75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tzeng W-N (1996) Effects of salinity and ontogenetic movements on strontium: calcium ratios in the otoliths of the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica Temminck and Schlegel. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 199:111–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tzeng W-N (2012) A review of the population structure, life history strategy, and sustainable fishery of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica in Taiwan. J Fish Soc Taiwan 38(1):1–19Google Scholar
  36. Tzeng W-N, Tabeta O (1983) First record of the short-finned eel Anguilla bicolor pacifica elvers from Taiwan. Bull Jap Soc Scientific Fish 49:27–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tzeng W-N, Tsai Y-C (1994) Changes in otolith microchemistry of the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, during its migration from the ocean to the rivers of Taiwan. J Fish Biol 45:671–683Google Scholar
  38. Tzeng W-N, Cheng P-W, Lin F-Y (1995) Relative abundance, sex ratio and population structure of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica in the Tanshui River system of northern Taiwan. J Fish Biol 46:183–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tzeng WN, Severin KP, Wickström H (1997) Use of otolith microchemistry to investigate the environmental history of European eel Anguilla anguilla. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 149:73–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tzeng WN, Wang CH, Wickström H, Reizenstein M (2000) Occurrence of the semi-catadromous European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) in the Baltic Sea. Mar Biol 137:93–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tzeng WN, Shiao JC, Iizuka Y (2002) Use of otolith Sr:Ca ratios to study the riverine migratory behaviours of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 245:213–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tzeng W-N, Iizuka Y, Shiao J-C, Yamada Y, Oka HP (2003) Identification and growth rates comparison of divergent migratory contingents of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). Aquaculture 216:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tzeng W-N, Han Y-S, Jessop BM (2009) Growth and habitat residence history of migratory silver American eel transplanted to Taiwan. Am Fish Soc Symp 58:137–147Google Scholar
  44. Tzeng W-N, Han Y-S, Tsukamoto K, Kuroki M (eds) (2012a) Story of eel. Lanyang Museum, Taiwan, 232 pp (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  45. Tzeng W-N, Tseng Y-H, Han Y-S, Hsu C-C, Chang C-W, Di Lorenzo E, Hsieh C-H (2012b) Evaluation of multi-scale climate effects on annual recruitment levels of the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, to Taiwan. PLoS One 7(2):e30805. doi: 10.1371/ journal.pone.0030805 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Watanabe S, Aoyama J, Tsukamoto K (2009) A new species of freshwater eel Anguilla luzonensis (Teleostei: Anguillidae) from Luzon Island of the Philippines. Fish Sci 75:387–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Williamson GR, Boëtius J (1993) The eels Anguilla marmorata and A. japonica in the Pearl River, China, and Hong Kong. Asian Fish Sci 6:129–138Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Fisheries ScienceNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries ScienceNational Taiwan Ocean UniversityKeelungTaiwan

Personalised recommendations