Advertisement

Eels in Culture, Fisheries and Science in Denmark

  • Suzanne Rindom
  • Jonna Tomkiewicz
  • Peter Munk
  • Kim Aarestrup
  • Thomas Damm Als
  • Michael Ingemann Pedersen
  • Christian Graver
  • Carina Anderberg
Chapter
Part of the Humanity and the Sea book series (HUMSEA)

Abstract

As in many other parts of the world, eels and their mysterious life cycle have always fascinated Danes. Almost everyone in Denmark, no matter their age, knows something about eels. In fact, the eel was once one of the country’s most important food fish, and Denmark itself was one of the main European nations fishing it, partly because of the seasonal abundance of migrating silver eels leaving the Baltic Sea through the narrow Straits of Denmark. Eels were fished year-round even during winter (Fig. 3.1). Although the Danish eel fishery was carried out mainly by smallholders, eels were for many years traded extensively with other European countries. Today, though, fisheries for eels are limited by low abundance and consequently restrictive laws.

Keywords

Important Food Fish Submerged Filter 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

Maria Krüger-Johnsen and Lilian H. Andersen, DTU Aqua, collected information and photographs from archives, museums and researchers for the Eels and Humans exhibition in Tokyo that pre-dated production of the book and this chapter, and Sune Riis Sørensen, DTU Aqua, provided photos and videos for the exhibition and for this chapter. We also thank Søren Byskov, Fisheries and Maritime Museum, Esbjerg, Denmark, for providing information on historical fishing gear and tools, as well as artefacts for the exhibition, and Annette Jensen, Danish State Archives, for organizing and lending logbooks and letters pertinent to Johannes Schmidt’s work. Photographs were provided by Thomas Højrup (Fig. 3.1), Rikke Johansen, the Viking Ship Museum, Roskilde, Denmark, Ingo Eichelberger and Robert Schabetsberger, Austria, guest editor Mari Kuroki, Claes Bech-Poulsen and Merete Ettrup. Last but not least, we thank Inge and Jan Boëtius for inspiring discussions and perspectives of the past.

References

  1. Aarestrup K, Økland F, Hansen MM, Righton D, Gargan P, Castonguay M, Bernatchez L et al (2009) Oceanic spawning migration of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Science 325:1660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aida K, Tsukamoto K, Yamauchi K (eds) (2003) Eel biology. Blackwell Publishing Asia, Melbourne, 497 ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Als TD, Hansen MM, Maes GE, Castonguay M, Riemann L, Aarestrup K, Munk P et al (2011) All roads lead to home: panmixia of European eel in the Sargasso Sea. Mol Ecol 20:1333–1346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anon (2008) Danish eel management plan. In accordance with Council Regulation (EC) No 1100/2007 of 18 September 2007 establishing measures for the recovery of the stock of European eel. © Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, Denmark, December 2008Google Scholar
  5. Boëtius I, Boëtius J (1967) Studies in the European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.). Experimental induction of the male sexual cycle, its relation to temperature and other factors. Meddelelser fra Danmarks Fiskeri- og Havundersøgelser 4:339–405Google Scholar
  6. Boëtius I, Boëtius J (1980) Experimental maturation of female silver eels, Anguilla anguilla. Estimates of fecundity and energy reserves for migration and spawning. Dana 1:1–28Google Scholar
  7. Boëtius J, Boëtius I, Hemmingsen AM, Bruun AF, Møller-Christensen E (1962) Studies of ovarial growth induced by hormone injections in the European and American eel (Anguilla anguilla L. and Anguilla rostrata LeSueur). Meddelelser fra Danmarks Fiskeri- og Havundersøgelser 3:183–198Google Scholar
  8. Bruun AF (1934) The life and work of Professor Johannes Schmidt. Estratto dalla Rivista di Biologia 16:3–22Google Scholar
  9. Bruun AF, Hemmingsen AM, Møller-Christensen E (1949) Attempts to induce experimentally maturation of the gonads of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla L. Acta Endocrinol 2:212–226Google Scholar
  10. Dannewitz J, Maes GE, Johansson L, Wickström H, Vockaert FAM, Järvi T (2005) Panmixia in the European eel: a matter of time. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 272:1129–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Drechsel CF (1890) Oversigt over vore Saltvandsfiskerier i Nordsøen og Farvandene indenfor Skagen, med Kort og Planer samt et Tillæg af Dr phil. C. G. J. Petersen [Overview of our salt water fisheries in the North Sea and the waters inside of Skagen, with maps, tables and a supplement by Dr phil. C. G. J.. Petersen]. A. E. Aamodt, Copenhagen, 151 ppGoogle Scholar
  12. European Union (2007) Council Regulation (EC) No 1100/2007 of 18 September 2007 establishing measures for the recovery of the stock of European eel. Official J European Union L248(50):17–23Google Scholar
  13. Fontaine M (1936) Sur la maturation complète des organes génitaux de l'anguille mâle et l'émission spontanée de ses produits sexuels [On the complete maturation of reproductive organs of male eels and the spontaneous emission of sexual products]. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences 202:1312–1314Google Scholar
  14. Fontaine M, Bertrand E, Lopez E, Callamand O (1964) Sur la maturation des organes genitaux de l'anguille femelle (Anguilla anguilla L.) et remission spontanee des oeufs en aquarium [Gonadal maturation of female eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) and spontaneous emission of eggs in aquarium]. Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences 259:2907–2910Google Scholar
  15. Freyhof J, Kottelat M (2010) Anguilla anguilla. In: IUCN red list of threatened species, Version 2012.1. www.iucnredlist.org Accessed 5 August 2012
  16. Grassi B (1896) The reproduction and metamorphosis of the common eel (Anguilla vulgaris). Proc R Soc London 60:260–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. ICES (2009a) Report of the 2009 session of the Joint EIFAC/ICES working group on eels. EIFAC Occasional Paper, No. 45. ICES Document CM 2009/ACOM: 15, Göteborg, Sweden, 7−12 September 2009, 540 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. ICES (2009b) Report of the ICES advisory committee, 2009. ICES Advice, 2009, Book 9, 113 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Ijiri S, Tsukamoto K, Chow S, Kurogi H, Adachi S, Tanaka H (2011) Controlled reproduction in the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica), past and present. Aquac Europe 36(2):13–17Google Scholar
  20. Kagawa H, Tanaka H, Ohta H, Unuma T, Nomura K (2005) The first success of glass eel production in the world: basic biology on fish reproduction advances new applied technology in aquaculture. Fish Physiol Biochem 31:193–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kirkegaard E (2010) European eel and aquaculture. DTU Aqua Report 229, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, 19 ppGoogle Scholar
  22. Munk P, Hansen MM, Maes GE, Nielsen TG, Castonguay M, Riemann L, Sparholt H et al (2010) Oceanic fronts in the Sargasso Sea control the early life and drift of Atlantic eels. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 277:3593–3599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Reagan TC (1933) Johannes Schmidt (1877−1933). J Cons Int Explor Mer 8:145–152Google Scholar
  24. Schmidt J (1922) The breeding places of the eel. Philos Trans R Soc B 211:179–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sparrevohn CR, Storr-Paulsen M, Nielsen J (2011) Eel, seatrout and cod catches in Danish recreational fishing. Survey design and 2010 catches in the Danish waters. DTU Aqua Report, 240-2011, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, 22 ppGoogle Scholar
  26. Tanaka H, Kagawa H, Ohta H (2001) Production of leptocephali of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) in captivity. Aquaculture 201:55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tomkiewicz J (ed) (2012) Reproduction of European eel in aquaculture (REEL). Consolidation and new production methods. DTU Aqua Report 249-2012, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, 48 ppGoogle Scholar
  28. Tomkiewicz J, Jarlbæk H (2008) Kunstig reproduktion af ål: ROE II og IIB [Artificial Reproduction of Eel: ROE II and IIB]. DTU Aqua Report 180-08, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, 79 ppGoogle Scholar
  29. Wind P, Pihl S (eds) (2004) The Danish red list, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University. http://redlist.dmu.dk Accessed April 2010
  30. Winge Ø, Tåning ÅV (eds) (1947) Naturforskeren Johannes Schmidt, Skildret af Venner og Medarbejdere [The Naturalist Johannes Schmidt: his life and expeditions: portrayed by friends and employees]. Gyldendal, Copenhagen, 187 ppGoogle Scholar
  31. Wirth T, Bernatchez L (2001) Genetic evidence against panmixia in the European eel. Nature 409:1037–1040CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suzanne Rindom
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jonna Tomkiewicz
    • 1
  • Peter Munk
    • 1
  • Kim Aarestrup
    • 1
  • Thomas Damm Als
    • 1
  • Michael Ingemann Pedersen
    • 1
  • Christian Graver
    • 3
  • Carina Anderberg
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute for Aquatic Resources (DTU Aqua)Technical University of DenmarkCharlottenlundDenmark
  2. 2.National Food InstituteTechnical University of DenmarkSøborgDenmark
  3. 3.The Danish Eel Farmer AssociationRibeDenmark

Personalised recommendations