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Regulatory Mechanisms Underlying the Neurogenesis-to-Gliogenesis Switch by Neural Stem Cells

  • Takuya Shimazaki
Chapter

Abstract

During development of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), neural stem cells (NSCs) first generate neurons, followed by glia. This sequential production of specific cell types is advantageous for the organism, since glia play pivotal roles in the maintenance and function of neurons and also, under some conditions, in the inhibition of axonal growth. The latter may be related to the conservation of the newly established neuronal circuitry. The temporal regulation of stem cell differentiation is captivating, given that the loss of stem cell plasticity is often part of the standard mammalian aging process. The reduced plasticity of adult stem cells, including NSCs, directly affects the capacity of the metazoan to regenerate lost or damaged neural tissue and seems to have occurred over the course of evolution. Indeed, the injured adult mammalian brain is scarcely capable of regeneration, not only due to the limited number of adult NSCs but also because of their low neurogenic capacity, except for in certain restricted CNS regions. By contrast, some lower vertebrates (e.g., red-spotted newts) show high regenerative capacity in the brain, with the efficient induction of neurogenesis after injury. Therefore, addressing the regulatory mechanisms underlying the neurogenesis-to-gliogenesis switch by NSCs during development is critical to understanding the restricted plasticity of the adult mammalian CNS. Accordingly, this chapter will review the recent progress in the field of NSC biology, especially regarding the temporal regulation of neurogenesis and gliogenesis.

Keywords

Notch Signalling Ventricular Zone Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signalling Central Nervous System Development Astrocyte Differentiation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physiology, School of MedicineKeio UniversityTokyoJapan

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