Diagnosis of Lateral Extensions



ESD is an excellent therapy, because it allows en bloc resections of targeted lesions. However, if preoperative determination of lateral extensions is inaccurate, postoperative pathological evaluation may result in positive lateral margins. Therefore, accurate preoperative diagnosis of lateral extensions is imperative. It is possible to observe surface and microvascular patterns in detail by combination of narrow band imaging (NBI) and magnified endoscopy. NBI magnified endoscopy is useful for diagnosis of lateral extensions of cancerous lesions [1, 2]. Diagnosis of lateral extensions by white light (WL) endoscopy, chromoendoscopy using indigo carmine, chromoendoscopy with acetic acid-indigo carmine mixture (AIM), and NBI magnified endoscopy are explained next. Limitations of NBI magnified endoscopy are discussed also.


Gastric Cancer Bloc Resection Narrow Band Imaging Surface Pattern Vascular Pattern 


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of EndoscopySaku Central HospitalSakuJapan

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