If protruded lesions are observed, the first step is to distinguish between epithelial and non-epithelial lesions. The marginal rising appearance of epithelial lesions is comparatively steep, and the surface of the protrusion exhibits an abnormal structure. The marginal rising appearance of non-epithelial lesions is comparatively smooth, sometimes with a bridging fold. The surface of the protrusion is either covered in normal mucosa, or mucosal lesions such as villus swelling due to the expression effect, engorgement, or ulceration may be present.
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