Chemistry of Protoplanetary Disks

  • Satoshi Yamamoto
Part of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Library book series (AAL)


In a later stage of low-mass star formation, a protoplanetary disk is formed around a newly born star, and it evolves into a planetary system. Chemical compositions of protoplanetary disks have been studied by radio and infrared observations. In this chapter, chemistry of protoplanetary disks is outlined after an overview of their physical conditions. Chemical compositions are discussed for four representative parts of a disk, disk midplane, disk surface, molecular zone, and inner disk. Molecules found in comets are briefly introduced in relation to disk chemistry.


Protoplanetary disk Disk model Molecular distribution Comet 


  1. F.C. Adams, J.P. Emerson, G.A. Fuller, Astrophys. J. 357, 606 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Y. Aikawa, T. Umebayashi, T. Nakano, S.M. Miyama, Astrophys. J. 486, L51 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. S.M. Andrews, J.P. Williams, Astrophys. J. 631, 1134 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. J. Bally, C.R. O’Dell, M.J. McCaughrean, Astron. J. 119, 2919 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. S.V.W. Beckwith, A.I. Sargent, R.S. Chini, R. Gusten, Astron. J. 99, 924 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. E.A. Bergin, L. Ilsedore Cleeves, U. Gorti, K. Zhang, G.A. Blake, J.D. Green, S.M. Andrews, N.J. Evans II, T. Henning, K. Oberg, K. Pontoppidan, C. Qi, C. Salyk, E.F. van Dishoeck, Nature 493, 644 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. N. Biver et al., Astron. Astrophys. 566, L5 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. D. Bockelee-Morvan et al., Astron. Astrophys. 353, 1101 (2000)ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. J.S. Carr, J.R. Najita, Astrophys. J. 733, 102 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. W.R.F. Dent et al., Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 125, 477 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. A. Dutrey, S. Guilloteau, M. Simon, Astron. Astrophys. 286, 149 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. A. Dutrey, S. Guilloteau, M. Guelin, Astron. Astrophys. 317, L55 (1997)ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. A. Dutrey, D. Semenov, E. Chapillon, U. Gorti, S. Guilloteau, F. Hersant, M. Hogerheijde, M. Hughes, G. Meeus, H. Nomura, V. Pietu, C. Qi, V. Wakelam, in Protostars and Planets VI, ed. by H. Beuther, R.S. Klessen, C.P. Dullemond, T. Henning (University of Arizona Press, Tuscon, 2014) p. 317Google Scholar
  14. D. Fedele et al., Astron. Astrophys. 559, A77 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. J.K.J. Fogel, T.J. Bethell, E.A. Bergin, N. Calvet, D. Semenov, Astrophys. J. 726, 29 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. A.E. Glassgold, J. Najita, J. Igea, Astrophys. J. 480, 344 (1997); Errata 485, 920 (1997)Google Scholar
  17. T. Handa et al., Astrophys. J. 449, 894 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. N. Harada, E. Herbst, V. Waklam, Astrophys. J. 721, 1570 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. L. Hartmann, Accretion Processes in Star Formation, 2nd edn. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001)Google Scholar
  20. T. Henning, D. Semenov, Chem. Rev. 113, 9016 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. G.H. Herbig, R.W. Goodrich, Astrophys. J. 309, 294 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. M.R. Hogerheijde et al., Science 334, 338 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. W.S. Holland et al., Nature 392, 788 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. C.D. Howard et al., Astrophys. J. 776, 21 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. R. Kawabe, M. Ishiguro, T. Omodaka, Y. Kitamura, S.M. Miyama, Astrophys. J. 404, L63 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. F. Lahuis et al., Astrophys. J. 636, L145 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. A.M. Mandell, J. Bast, E.F. van Dishoeck, G.A. Blake, C. Salyk, M.J. Mumma, G. Villanueva, Astrophys. J. 747, 92 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. R.K. Mann, J.P. Williams, Astrophys. J. 725, 430 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. B. Matthews, G. Kennedy, B. Sibthorpe, M. Booth, M. Wyatt, H. Broekhoven-Fiene, B. Macintosh, C. Marois, Astrophys. J. 780, 97 (2014)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. M. Minissale, E. Congiu, G. Manico, V. Pirronello, F. Dulieu, Astron. Astrophys. 559, A49 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. M.J. Mumma, S.B. Charnley, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 49, 471 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. H. Nomura, T.J. Millar, Astron. Astrophys. 438, 923 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Y. Oba, N. Watababe, A. Kouchi, T. Hama, V. Pirronello, Astrophys. J. 712, L174 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. K. Oberg, C. Qi, J.K.J. Fogel, E.A. Bergin, S.M. Andrews, C. Espaillat, T.A. van Kempen, D.J. Wilner, I. Pascucci, Astrophys. J. 720, 480 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. K.M. Pontoppidan, C. Salyk, G.A. Blake, R. Meijerink, J.S. Carr, J. Najita, Astrophys. J. 720, 887 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. C. Qi, K.I. Oberg, D.J. Wilner, P. D’Alessio, E. Bergin, S.M. Andrews, G.A. Blake, M.R. Hogerheijde, E.F. van Dishoeck, Science 341, 630 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. L. Ricci, M. Robberto, D.R. Soderblom, Astron. J. 136, 2136 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. S.M. Rucinski, Astron. J. 90, 2321 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. K. Schreyer et al., Astron. Astrophys. 491, 821 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. N.I. Shakura, R.A. Sunyaev, Astron. Astrophys. 24, 337 (1973)ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. M. Simon, A. Dutrey, S. Guilloteau, Astrophys. J. 545, 1034 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. K.M. Strom, S.E. Strom, S. Edwards, S. Cabrit, M.F. Skrutskie, Astron. J. 97, 1451 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. M.F. Strutskie, R.L. Snell, K.M. Strom, S.E. Strom, S. Edwards, Y. Fukui, A. Mizuno, M. Hayashi, N. Ohashi, Astrophys. J. 409, 422 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. J.J. Tobin, L. Hartmann, H.-F. Chiang, D.J. Wilner, L.W. Looney, L. Loinard, N. Calvet, P. D’Alessio, Nature 492, 83 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. C. Walsh, T.J. Millar, H. Nomura, Astrophys. J. 722, 1607 (2010)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. C. Walsh, H. Nomura, T.J. Millar, Y. Aikawa, Astrophys. J. 747, 114 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. J.P. Williams, L.A. Cieza, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 49, 67 (2011)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. H.-W. Yen, S. Takakuwa, N. Ohashi, P.T.P. Ho, Astrophys. J. 772, 22 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Satoshi Yamamoto
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations