Resources, Energy, and Environmental Load

  • Hidefumi Imura


This chapter discusses energy conservation and efficient use of resources for improving energy and resource productivity. Regarding the environmental impacts of products and technology systems, life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed and applied extensively. The challenges, however, are interpretation of the findings, and how to consider the relationship between the environmental criteria and other evaluation criteria, such as economic efficiency. Renewable energy such as solar power is promising, but to promote its use, we must reform existing energy systems to make centralized systems and distributed systems work complementarily. Ultimately, these decisions will be made by the main players involved in decision making—whether they be consumers or producers, or the governments and municipalities entrusted to make decisions. Thus, it is important to prepare and provide environmental information conducive to decision making. Another efficient way to achieve environmental objectives is to set macro-level environmental management targets at the level of state, municipality, industry sector, community, etc., while utilizing market mechanisms to allow freedom of choice for the individual micro-level behavior of corporations and consumers.


Gross Domestic Product Heat Pump Carbon Dioxide Emission Life Cycle Impact Assessment Ecological Footprint 
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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hidefumi Imura
    • 1
  1. 1.Yokohama City UniversityYokohamaJapan

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