Advertisement

The Unique Human Capacity for Emotional Awareness: Psychological, Neuroanatomical, Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives

  • Horst Dieter Steklis
  • Richard D. Lane
Chapter
Part of the The Science of the Mind book series (The Science of the Mind)

Abstract

We propose that the ability to be consciously aware of one’s own and others’ emotions is a unique human capacity. Emotion may be divided into implicit (visceromotor and somatomotor) and explicit (conscious feeling and reflective awareness) components. Based on a brain model of implicit and explicit emotional processing and an evolutionary perspective on the frontal lobe and human cognition, it is proposed that human emotion has a visceromotor and somatomotor foundation that is likely shared with other mammals. What may be unique to human cognition is the ability to engage in shared intensions and collaborative activities, which includes a species-unique motivation to share emotions, experiences and activities with other persons. The capacity for shared emotional experiences (knowing that you and the other person are experiencing the same feelings) likely requires mediation by a mentalizing network that includes the medial prefrontal cortex. We review evidence that humans appear to be unique in being able to reflect upon their own emotions, to generate a complex range of differentiated experiences, to appreciate complexity in the emotional experiences of other people, and to intentionally and knowingly share emotional experiences with other people. However, individual differences in this capacity among people are considerable. Although emotional awareness promotes self-regulation and adapative social behavior, impairments in this function can lead to social isolation, mental illness and adverse physical health consequences. We propose that the unique human ability to be emotionally aware requires mediation by the medial prefrontal cortex (BA10), a structure that is far more developed in humans than in other species, but also requires advantageous ontogenetic experiences. Such experiences include a particular type of mentalizing (accurate cognitive empathy) by parents and other caretakers, mediated in part by this same medial prefrontal cortical structure, in order for the full function of this capacity to be realized.

Keywords

Medial Prefrontal Cortex Autobiographical Memory Conscious Experience Emotional Awareness Cognitive Empathy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Netzin Steklis for her contributions to many stimulating discussions on the topic of emotional awareness in primates, for her thorough reading of the manuscript, and her constructive suggestions for improvement.

References

  1. Adolphs R (2009) The social brain: neural basis of social knowledge. Annu Rev Psychol 60:693–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldridge K (2010) Patterns of differences in brain morphology in humans as compared to extant apes. J Hum Evol 60:94–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Allman J, Hakeem A, Watson K (2002) Two phylogenetic specializations in the human brain. Neuroscientist 8:335–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Allman JM, Watson KK, Tetreault NA, Hakeem AY (2005) Intuition and autism: a possible role for Von Economo neurons. Trends Cogn Sci 9:376–373Google Scholar
  5. Allman JM, Tetreault NA, Hakeem AY, Manaye KF, Semendeferi K, Erwin JM et al (2010) The von Economo neurons in frontoinsular and anterior cingulate cortex in great apes and humans. Brain Struct Funct 214:495–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson JR, Gallup GG Jr (1999) Self-recognition in nonhuman primates: past and future challenges. In: Haug M, Whalen RE (eds) Animal models of human emotion and cognition. American Psychological Association, Washington, pp 175–194Google Scholar
  7. Aureli F, Whiten A (2003) Emotions and behavioral flexibility. In: Mastripieri D (ed) Primate psychology. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp 289–323Google Scholar
  8. Barrett L, Henzi P, Rendall D (2007) Social brains, simple minds: does social complexity really require cognitive complexity? Philos Trans R Soc B 362:561–575Google Scholar
  9. Berthoz S, Ouhayoun B, Parage N (2000) Etude preliminaire des niveaux de conscience emotionnelle chez des patients deprimes et des controles (Preliminary study of the levels of emotional awareness in depressed patients and controls). Ann Med Psychol (Paris) 158:665–672Google Scholar
  10. Blatt S, Wein S, Chevron E, Quinlan D (1979) Parental representations and depression in normal young adults. J Abnorm Psychol 88:388–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Boesch C (1991) Teaching among wild chimpanzees. Anim Behav 41:530–532Google Scholar
  12. Bolhuis JJ, Wynne CDL (2009) Can evolution explain how minds work? Nature 458:832–833PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brinck I, Gardenfors P (2003) Co-operation and communication in apes and humans. Mind Lang 18:484–501Google Scholar
  14. Bruch H (1973) Eating disorders: obesity, anorexia nervosa and the person within. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Buckner RL, Carroll DC (2006) Self-projection and the brain. Trends Cogn Sci 11:49–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Buckner RL, Andrews-Hanner JR, Schacter DL (2008) The brain’s default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1124:1–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Butti C, Hof PR (2010) The insular cortex: a comparative perspective. Brain Struct Funct 214:477–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bydlowski S, Corcos M, Jeammet P, Paterniti S, Berthoz S, Laurier C, Chambry J, Consoli S (2005) Emotion-processing deficits in eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord 37:321–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Byrnit J (2005) Primate theory of mind: a comparative psychological analysis. Psykologisk Institut, Aarhus Universitet, AarhusGoogle Scholar
  20. Byrne RW, Bates LA (2010) Primate social cognition: uniquely primate, uniquely social, or just unique? Neuron 65:815–830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Byrne RW, Whiten A (1988) Machiavellian intelligence: social expertise and the evolution of intellect in monkeys, apes and humans. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  22. Call J, Tomasello M (2008) Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? 30 years later. Trends Cogn Sci 12:187–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Carruthers P (2008) Meta-cognition in animals: a skeptical look. Mind Lang 23:58–89Google Scholar
  24. Christoff K, Gabrieli JDE (2000) The frontopolar cortex and human cognition: evidence for a rostrocaudal hierarchical organisation within the human prefrontal cortex. Psychobiology 28:168–186Google Scholar
  25. Churchland PS, Churchland PM (1983) Stalking the wild epistemic engine. Nous 17:5–18Google Scholar
  26. Ciarrochi J, Caputi P, Mayer JD (2003) The distinctiveness and utility of a measure of trait emotional awareness. Pers Individ Dif 34:1477–1490Google Scholar
  27. Consoli S (2005) Social anxiety is associated with higher levels of emotional awareness in obese patients waiting for gastric banding surgery. In: Symposium conducted at the American Psychosomatic Society 63rd annual meeting, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  28. Consoli SM, Lemogne C, Roch B, Laurent S, Plouin P-F, Lane RD (2010) Differences in emotion processing in patients with essential and secondary hypertension. Am J Hypertens 23:515–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Craig ADB (2010) The sentient self. Brain Struct Funct 214:563–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Lama D, Ekman P (2008) Emotional awareness: overcoming the obstacles to psychological balance and compassion. Times Books, NYGoogle Scholar
  31. Damasio AR (1994) Descartes’ error: emotion, reason, and the human brain. G.P. Putnam’s Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Davidson RJ, Putnam KM, Larson CL (2000) Dysfunction in the neural circuitry of emotion regulation: a possible prelude to violence. Science 289:591–594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dennett DC (1996) Kinds of minds: toward an understanding of consciousness. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. de Waal FBM (1996) Good natured. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  35. de Waal FBM (2008) Putting the altruism back into altruism: the evolution of empathy. Annu Rev Psychol 59:279–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Donges U-S, Kersting A, Dannlowski U, Lalee-Mentzel J, Arolt V, Suslow T (2005) Reduced awareness of others’ emotions in unipolar depressed patients. J Nerv Ment Dis 193:331–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Ekman P (ed) (1973) Darwin and facial expression: a century of research in review. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Emery NJ, Clayton NS (2004) The mentality of crows: convergent evolution of intelligence in corvids and apes. Science 306:1903–1907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Farthing GW (1992) The psychology of consciousness. Prentice Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  40. Fischer K (1980) A theory of cognitive development: the control and construction of heirarchies of skills. Psychol Rev 87:477–531Google Scholar
  41. Fitch WT, Huber L, Bugnyar T (2010) Social cognition and the evolution of language: constructing cognitive phylogenies. Neuron 65:795–814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Fivush R (2011) The development of autobiographical memory. Annu Rev Psychol 62:559–582Google Scholar
  43. Focquaert F, Platek SM (2007) Social cognition and the evolution of self-awareness. In: Platek SM, Keenan JP, Shackleford TK (eds) Evolutionary cognitive neuroscience. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 457–498Google Scholar
  44. Fraser ON, Bugnyar T (2010) Do ravens show consolation? Responses to distressed others. PLoS One 5:1–8Google Scholar
  45. Frewen P, Lanius R, Lane R, Neufeld R, Densmore M (2008) Neural correlates of individual differences in levels of emotional awareness during trauma script-imagery. Psychosom Med 70:27–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Frijda N (1986) The emotions. Cambridge University, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  47. Press Frith C, Frith U (1999) Interacting minds—a biological basis. Science 286:1692–1695Google Scholar
  48. Frith U, Frith C (2010) The social brain: allowing humans to boldly go where no other species has been. Philos Trans R Soc B 365:165–176Google Scholar
  49. Gallese V, Goldman A (1998) Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mind-reading. Trends Cogn Sci 2:493–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gallup GG Jr (1979) Self-awareness in primates. Am Sci 67:417–421Google Scholar
  51. Gallup GG Jr (1982) Self-awareness and the emergence of mind in primates. Am J Primatol 2:237–248Google Scholar
  52. Gazzaniga M (1998) The mind’s past. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  53. Gazzaniga M, Ivry RB, Mangun GR (2002) Cognitive neuroscience: the biology of the mind. Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. Gazzaniga MS, Ivry RB, Mangun GR (2009) Emotion. In: Cognitive neuroscience: the biology of the mind, vol 3. W. W. Norton & Company, New York, pp 364–387Google Scholar
  55. Gergely G, Watson JS (1996) The social biofeedback theory of parental affect-mirroring. Int J Psychoanal 77:1181–1211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gilbert DT, Wilson TD (2007) Prospection: experiencing the future. Science 317:1351–1354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gilbert SJ, Spengler S, Simons JS, Steele JD, Lawrie SM, Frith CD et al (2006) Functional specialization within rostral prefrontal cortex (area 10): a meta-analysis. J Cogn Neurosci 18:932–948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gomez JC (1998) Assessing theory of mind with nonverbal procedures: problems with training methods and an alternative “key” procedure. Behav Brain Sci 21:119–120Google Scholar
  59. Gomez JC (2004) Apes, monkeys, children, and the growth of mind. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  60. Gothard KM, Hoffman KL (2010) Circuits of emotion in the primate brain. In: Platt ML, Ghazanfar AA (eds) Primate neuroethology. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 292–315Google Scholar
  61. Greenberg LS (2004) Emotion-focused therapy. Clin Psychol Psychother 11:3–16Google Scholar
  62. Gusnard D, Akbudak E, Shulman G, Raichle M (2001) Medial prefrontal cortex and self-referential mental activity: relation to a default mode of brain function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:4259–4264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Fragaszy DM, Greenberg R, Visalberghi E, Ottoni EB, Izar P, Liu Q (2010) How wild bearded capuchins select stones and nuts to minimize the number of strikes per nut cracked. Anim Behav 80:205–214Google Scholar
  64. Happe F (2003) Theory of mind and the self. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1001:134–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Happe F, Ehlers S, Fletcher P, Frith U, Johansson M, Gillberg C et al (1996) ‘Theory of mind’ in the brain. Evidence from a PET scan study of Asperger syndrome. Neuroreport 8:197–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Harcourt AH, de Waal FBM (eds) (1992) Coalitons and alliances in human and nonhuman animals. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  67. Hare B (2001) Can competitive paradigms increase the validity of social cognitive experiments on primates? Anim Cogn 4:269–280Google Scholar
  68. Hare B (2007) From nonhuman to human mind: what changed and why? Curr Dir Psychol Sci 16:60–64Google Scholar
  69. Hare B, Tomasello M (2004) Chimpanzees are more skillful in competitive than in cooperative tasks. Anim Behav 68:571–581Google Scholar
  70. Hare B, Call J, Tomasello O (2001) Do chimpanzees know what conspecifics know? Anim Behav 61:139–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hare B, Melis AP, Woods V, Hastings S, Wrangham R (2007) Tolerance allows bonobos to outperform chimpanzees on a cooperative task. Curr Biol 17:619–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hawks J, Wang ET, Cochran GM, Harpending HC, Moyzis RK (2007) Recent acceleration of human adaptive evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:20753–20758PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Heatherton TF (2011) Neuroscience of self and self-regulation. Annu Rev Psychol 62:363–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Herrmann E, Call J, Hernández-Lloreda MV, Hare B, Tomasello M (2007) Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: the cultural intelligence hypothesis. Science 317:1360–1366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Herrmann E, Hare B, Call J, Tomasello M (2010) Differences in the cognitive skills of bonobos and chimpanzees. PLoS One 5:1–4Google Scholar
  76. Heyes CM (1998) Theory of mind in nonhuman primates. Behav Brain Sci 21:101–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Johnson S, Baxter L, Wilder L, Pipe J, Heiserman J, Prigatano G (2002) Neural correlates of self-reflection. Brain 125:1808–1814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kaminski J, Call J, Tomasello M (2008) Chimpanzees know what others know, but not what they believe. Cognition 109:224–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Kang SM, Shaver PR (2004) Individual differences in emotional complexity: their psychological implications. J Pers 72:687–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Karmiloff-Smith A (1992) Beyond modularity: a developmental perspective on cognitive science. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  81. Kihlstrom JF, Mulvaney S, Tobias BA, Tobis IP (2000) The emotional unconscious. In: Eich E, Kihlstron J, Bower G, Forgas JP, Niedenthal PM (eds) Cognition and emotion. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 30–86Google Scholar
  82. King JE, Figueredo AJ (1997) The five-factor model plus dominance in chimpanzee personality. J Res Personality 31:257–271Google Scholar
  83. Kirsch JA, Gunturkun O, Rose J (2008) Insight without a cortex: lessons from the avian brain. Conscious Cogn 17:475–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kling AS, Steklis HD (1976) A neural substrate for affiliative behavior in nonhuman primates. Brain Behav Evol 13:216–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Kober H, Barrett LF, Joseph J, Bliss-Moreau E, Lindquist K, Wager TD (2008) Functional grouping and cortical-subcortical interactions in emotion: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Neuroimage 42:998–1031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Koski SE, Sterck EHM (2010) Empathic chimpanzees: a proposal of the levels of emotional and cognitive processing in chimpanzee empathy. Eur J Dev Psychol 7:38–66Google Scholar
  87. Lackner J (2005) Is IBS a problem of emotion dysregulation? Testing the levels of emotional awareness model. In: Symposium conducted at the American Psychosomatic Society 63rd Annual Meeting, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  88. Lamm C, Singer T (2010) The role of anterior insular cortex in social emotions. Brain Struct Funct 214:579–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Lane RD (2000) Neural correlates of conscious emotional experience. In: Lane R, Nadel L, Ahern G, Allen J, Kaszniak A, Rapcsak S et al (eds) Cognitive neuroscience of emotion. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 345–370Google Scholar
  90. Lane RD (2008) Neural substrates of implicit and explicit emotional processes: a unifying framework for psychosomatic medicine. Psychosom Med 70:214–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Lane RD, Pollerman B (2002) Complexity of emotion representations. In: Barrett LF, Salovey P (eds) The wisdom in feeling. Guilford, New York, pp 271–293Google Scholar
  92. Lane RD, Schwartz GE (1987) Levels of emotional awareness: a cognitive-developmental theory and its application to psychopathology. Am J Psychiatry 144:133–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Lane RD, Quinlan DM, Schwartz GE, Walker PA, Zeilin SB (1990) The levels of emotional awareness scale: a cognitive-developmental measure of emotion. J Pers Assess 55:124–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Lane RD, Sechrest B, Riedel R, Weldon V, Kaszniak A, Schwartz G (1996) Impaired verbal and nonverbal emotion recognition in alexithymia. Psychosom Med 58:203–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Lane R, Fink G, Chua P, Dolan R (1997) Neural activation during selective attention to subjective emotional responses. Neuroreport 8:3969–3972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Lane R, Sechrest L, Riedel R, Shapiro D, Kaszniak A (2000) Pervasive emotion recognition deficit common to alexithymia and the repressive coping style. Psychosom Med 62:492–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Lane R, Carmichael C, Reis H (2011) Differentiation in the momentary rating of somatic symptoms covaries with trait emotional awareness in patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. Psychosom Med 73:185–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Lang PJ, Bradley MM, Cuthbert BN (2001) International Affective Picture System (IAPS): instruction manual and affective ratings. Technical report. The University of Florida, The Center for Research in PsychophysiologyGoogle Scholar
  99. Levenson RW, Miller BL (2007) Loss of cells—loss of self: frontotemporal lobar degeneration and human emotion. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 16:289–294Google Scholar
  100. Levine D, Marziali E, Hood J (1997) Emotion processing in borderline personality disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis 185:240–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Liu D, Meltzoff AN, Wellman HM (2009a) Neural correlates of belief- and desire-reasoning. Child Dev 80:1163–1171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Liu D, Sabbagh MA, Gehring WJ, Wellman HM (2009b) Neural correlates of children’s theory of mind development. Child Dev 80:318–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Loevinger J, Wessler R (1970) Measuring ego development, vol. I: construction and use of a science completion test. Jossey-Bass, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  104. Loevinger J, Wessler R, Redmore C (1970) Measuring ego development, vol. II: scoring manual for women and girls. Jossey-Bass, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  105. Macellini S, Ferrari PF, Bonini L, Fogassi L, Paukner A (2010) A modified mark test for own-body recognition in pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Anim Cogn 13:631–639PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Mar RA (2011) The neural bases of social cognition and story comprehension. Annu Rev Psychol 62:103–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Marshall AD, Holtzworth-Munroe A (2010) Recognition of wives’ emotional expressions: a mechanism in the relationship between psychopathology and intimate partner violence perpetration. J Fam Psychol 24:21–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Medford N, Critchley HD (2010) Conjoint activity of anterior insular and anterior cingulate cortex: awareness and response. Brain Struct Funct 214:535–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Mitchell JP, Banaji MR, Macrae CN (2005) General and specific contributions of the medical prefrontal cortex to knowledge about mental states. Neuroimage 28:757–762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Novick-Kline P, Turk C, Mennin D, Hoyt E, Gallagher C (2005) Level of emotional awareness as a differentiating variable between individuals with and without generalized anxiety disorder. J Anxiety Disord 19:557–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Ochsner K, Knierim K, Ludlow D, Hanelin J, Ramachandran T, Glover G, Mackey S (2004) Reflecting upon feelings: an fMRI study of neural systems supporting the attribution of emotion to self and other. J Cogn Neurosci 16:1746–1772PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Olson IR, Plotzker A, Ezzyat Y (2007) The Enigmatic temporal pole: a review of findings on social and emotional processing. Brain 130:1718–1731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Owren MJ, Rendall D, Bachorowski JA (2003) Nonlinguistic vocal communication. In: Mastripieri D (ed) Primate psychology. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp 359–394Google Scholar
  114. Paivio SC, Laurent C (2001) Empathy and emotion regulation: reprocessing memories of childhood abuse. J Clin Psychol 57:213–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Parker A (1998) Primate cognitive neuroscience: what are the useful questions? Behav Brain Sci 21:128Google Scholar
  116. Parr LA (2001) Cognitive and physiological markers of emotional awareness in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Anim Cogn 4:223–229Google Scholar
  117. Parr LA, Mastripieri D (2003) Nonvocal communication. In: Mastripieri D (ed) Primate psychology. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp 324–358Google Scholar
  118. Patterson FG (1980) Innovative uses of language by a gorilla: a case study. In: Nelson KE (ed) Children’s language, vol 2. Gardner, New York, pp 497–561Google Scholar
  119. Patterson FGP, Cohn RH (1994) Self-recognition and self-awareness in lowland gorillas. In: Parker ST, Mitchell RW, Boccia ML (eds) Self-awareness in animals and humans. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 273–291Google Scholar
  120. Patterson FGP, Gordon W (2001) Twenty-seven years of Project Koko and Michael. In: Galdikas B, Briggs N, Sheeran L, Shapiro G, Goodall J (eds) All apes great and small, vol I: African apes. Kluwer, NY, pp 165–176Google Scholar
  121. Penn DC, Povinelli DJ (2007) On the lack of evidence that non-human animals possess anything remotely resembling a ‘theory of mind’. Philos Trans R Soc B 362:731–744Google Scholar
  122. Penn DC, Holyoak KJ, Povinelli DJ (2008) Darwin’s mistake: explaining the discontinuity between human and nonhuman minds. Behav Brain Sci 31:109–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Peterson D, Wrangham R (1996) Demonic males: apes and the origins of human violence. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  124. Piaget J (1937) La construction du réel chez l’enfant. Delachaux et Niestlé, NeuchâtelGoogle Scholar
  125. Pinker S (2010) The cognitive niche: coevolution of intelligence, sociality, and language. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107((Suppl 2)):8993–8999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Pollak SD, Sinha P (2002) Effects of early experience on children’s recognition of facial displays of emotion. Dev Psychol 38:784–791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Premack D, Woodruff G (1978) Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? Behav Brain Sci 1:515–526Google Scholar
  128. Prior H, Schwarz A, Gunturkun O (2008) Mirror-induced behavior in the Magpie (Pica pica): evidence of self-recognition. PLoS Biol 6:1642–1650Google Scholar
  129. Ramnani N, Owen AM (2004) Anterior prefrontal cortex: insights into function from anatomy and neuroimaging. Nat Rev Neurosci 5:184–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Rilling JK, Barks SK, Parr LA, Preuss TM, Faber TL, Pagnoni G et al (2007) A comparison of resting-state brain activity in humans and chimpanzees. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:17146–17151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Rochat P (2003) Five levels of self-awareness as they unfold early in life. Conscious Cogn 12:717–731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Rosati AG, Santos LR, Hare B (2010) Primate social cognition: thirty years after Premack and Woodruff. In: Platt ML, Ghazanfar AA (eds) Primate neuroethology. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 117–143Google Scholar
  133. Rumbaugh DM, Beran MJ, Savage-Rumbaugh SS (2003) Language. In: Mastripieri D (ed) Primate psychology. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp 395–423Google Scholar
  134. Santos LR, Flombaum JI, Phillips W (2007) The evolution of human mindreading: how nonhuman primates can inform social cognitive neuroscience. In: Platek SM, Keenan JP, Shackleford TK (eds) Evolutionary cognitive neuroscience. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 433–456Google Scholar
  135. Schoenemann PT, Glotzer LD, Sheehan MJ (2005) Reply to “Is prefrontal white matter enlargement a human evolutionary specialization?”. Nat Neurosci 8:538Google Scholar
  136. Seeley WW (2010) Anterior insula degeneration in frontotemporal dementia. Brain Struct Funct 214:465–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Semendeferi K, Armstrong E, Schleichter A, Zilles K, Van Hoesen G (2001) Prefrontal cortex in humans and apes: a comparative study of area 10. Am J Phys Anthropol 114:224–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Semendeferi K, Lu A, Schenker N, Damasio H (2002) Humans and great apes share a large frontal cortex. Nat Neurosci 5:272–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Sherwood CC, Holloway RL, Semendeferi K, Hof PR (2005) Is prefrontal white matter enlargement a human evolutionary specialization? Nat Neurosci 8:537–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Singer T (2006) The neuronal basis and ontogeny of empathy and mind reading: review of literature and implications for future research. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 30:855–863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Smith A (2006) Cognitive empathy and emotional empathy in human behavior and evolution. Psychol Rec 56:3–21Google Scholar
  142. Smith JD (2007) Species of parsimony in comparative studies of cognition. In: Washburn DA (ed) Primate perspectives on behavior and cognition. American Psychological Association, Washington, pp 63–80Google Scholar
  143. Steklis HD, Kling AS (1985) Neurobiology of affiliative behavior in nonhuman primates. In: Reite M, Field T (eds) The psychobiology of attachment and separation. Academic, New York, pp 93–134Google Scholar
  144. Stimpson CD, Tetreault NA, Allman JM, Jacobs B, Butti C, Hof PR et al (2011) Biochemical specificity of von Economo neurons in hominoids. Am J Hum Biol 23:22–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Subic-Wrana C, Bruder S, Thomas W, Lane R, Kohle K (2005) Emotional awareness deficits in inpatients of a psychosomatic ward: a comparison of two different measures of alexithymia. Psychosom Med 67:483–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Subic-Wrana A, Beetz M, Paulussen J, Wiltnik J, Beutel M (2007) Relations between attachment, childhood trauma, and emotional awareness in psychosomatic inpatients. In: Symposium conducted at the American Psychosomatic Society 65th Annual Meeting, BudapestGoogle Scholar
  147. Subic-Wrana C, Beutel M, Knebel A, Lane RD (2010) Theory of mind and emotional awareness deficits in somatoform patients. Psychosom Med 72:404–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Tamietto M, de Gelder B (2010) Neural bases of the non-conscious perception of emotional signals. Nat Rev Neurosci 11:697–709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Thompson RA, Lagattuta KH (2008) Feeling and understanding: early emotional development. In: McCartney K, Phillips D (eds) Blackwell handbook of early childhood development. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, pp 317–337Google Scholar
  150. Tomasello M (1999) The cultural origins of human cognition. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  151. Tomasello M, Herrmann E (2010) Ape and human cognition: what’s the difference? Curr Dir Psychol Sci 19:3–8Google Scholar
  152. Tomasello M, Carpenter M, Call J, Behne T, Moll H (2005) Understanding and sharing intentions: the origins of cultural cognition. Behav Brain Sci 28:675–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Trut LN, Plyusnina IZ, Oskina IN (2004) An experiment on fox domestication and debatable issues of evolution of the dog. Russ J Genet 40:644–655Google Scholar
  154. Udell MAR, Dorey NR, Wynne CDL (2010) What did domestication do to dogs? A new account of dogs’ sensitivity to human actions. Biol Rev 85:327–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Vogeley K, Bussfeld P, Newen A, Herrmann S, Happe F, Falkai P et al (2001) Mind reading: neural mechanisms of theory of mind and self-perspective. Neuroimage 14:170–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Weiskrantz L (2000) Blindsight: implications for the conscious experience of emotion. In: Lane R, Nadel L, Ahern G, Allen J, Kaszniak A, Rapcsak S et al (eds) Cognitive neuroscience of emotion. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 277–295Google Scholar
  157. Wellman HM, Brandone AC (2009) Early intention understandings that are common to primates predict children’s later theory of mind. Curr Opin Neurobiol 19:57–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Werner H, Kaplan B (1963) Symbol formation: an organismic-development approach to language and the expression of thoughts. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  159. Whiten A (2000) Chimpanzee cognition and the question of mental re-representation. In: Sperber D (ed) Metarepresentations: a multidisciplinary perspective. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 139–170Google Scholar
  160. Wynne CDL, Bolhuis JJ (2008) Minding the gap: why there is still no theory in comparative psychology. Behav Brain Sci 31:152–152Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Psychology and Family Studies and Human DevelopmentUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Psychiatry, Psychology and NeuroscienceUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations