Studies on Schizophrenia

  • Yoshibumi Nakane


As Table 5.1 shows, Japan’s first study on the frequency of psychiatric disorders was conducted in 1940 in Hachijo-jima Island (Tokyo) by a group from Tokyo University led by Professor Yushi Uchimura [1]. This was a genetic epidemiological study with a sample of not only subjects with schizophrenia but also those with disorders categorized into major psychoses, including bipolar affective disorders, following the preceding study initiated by C. Brugger in Thüringen, Germany, in 1931. Every possible measure is considered to have been taken to obtain as much appropriate information as possible from accessible networks in particular areas. This study was recognized as a pioneering approach and followed by a number of regional studies, as summarized in Table 5.2. The focus of these studies was to determine lifetime prevalence, and the study results were used to estimate morbidity risk following Weinberg’s convention. Since this was a commonly used method at that time and the deviations among each of the morbidity risk rates shown in the bottom of Table 5.2 are within an acceptable range, estimates are considered reliable for comparison of data to an extent, though coverage accuracy and inclusion criteria of the sample are not clearly given.


Psychotic Symptom Schizophrenia Patient Morbidity Risk Onset Pattern Psychotic State 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Tatetsu S. Epidemiology. In: The group publishing the book to commemorate Prof. Y. Uchimura, editor. Personality and achievement. Tokyo: Sozo Publishing; 1982 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Takahashi R, Harada K, Nakane Y, Matsunaga F, Kawasaki N. Physical and mental developments in childhood and psychiatric diseases. Clin Psychiatry. 1976;18:853–63 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nakane Y, Fujii I, Ohta Y, Morita T, Takahashi R. Physical and mental development in childhood and risk of schizophrenia in later life. Folia Psychiatr Neurol Jpn. 1978;32:63–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Imamura Y, Nakane Y, Ohta Y, Kondo H. Lifetime prevalence of schizophrenia among individuals prenatally exposed to atomic bomb radiation in Nagasaki City. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1999;100:344–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nakane Y. Epidemiology in psychiatry. In: Kakeda K, Shimazono Y, Okuma T, Takahashi R, Hozaki H, editors. Handbook of modern psychiatry’ supplement for ’87-A. Tokyo: Nakayama Shoten; 1987. p. 31–57 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nakane Y, Takahashi R, Tominaga Y, et al. The incidence rate study of schizophrenia in Nagasaki city. Clin Psychiatry. 1985;27:771–81 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nakane Y, Takahashi R, Ohta Y. Morbid risk of schizophrenia in Japan. Clin Psychiatry. 1986;28:421–6 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Saha S, Chant DC, Welham JL, McGrath JJ. The incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia varies with latitude. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2006;114:36–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sugasaki H, Michitsuji S, Ohta Y, Nakane Y. International collaborative studies of schizophrenia: International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia (IPSS) and WHO Collaborative Study on the Determinants of Outcome of Severe Mental Disorder (DOSMeD). Psychiatr Diagn. 1994;5:39–53 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bøjholm S, Strömgren E. Prevalence of schizophrenia on the island of Bornholm in 1935 and in 1983. In: Sartorius N, Nielsen JA, Strömgren E, editors. Changes in frequency of mental disorder over time. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1989;9(Suppl. 348):157–66.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Helgason T, Magnussen H. The first 80 years of life. A psychiatric epidemiological study. In: Sartorius N, Nielsen JA, Strömgren E, editors. Changes in frequency of mental disorder over time. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1989;79(Suppl. 348):85–94.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hagnell O. Repeated incidence and prevalence studies of mental disorders in a total population followed during 25 years. The Lundby Study, Sweden. In: Sartorius N, Nielsen JA, Strömgren E, editors. Changes in frequency of mental disorder over time. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1989;79(Suppl. 348):61–77.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jablensky A, Sartorius N, Ernberg G, et al. Schizophrenia: manifestations, incidence and course in different cultures. A World Health Organization Ten-Country Study. Psychological Medicine Monograph 20. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1992. p. 1–97.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Faris REL, Dunham HW. Mental disorders in urban areas, an ecological study of schizophrenia and other psychoses. New York: Häfner Publishing Co. Inc.; 1939 (reprinted in 1960 by University of Chicago Press, Chicago).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Takemoto T, Nakane Y, Nishihara J, Ohta Y, Moji K, Izumi T. Human ecological system in the city and its health consequences. Jpn J Soc Psychiatry. 1988;11:259–67 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nakane Y, Takada K, Yoshitake K, Hatada K. Chapter 15, DOSMeD: Nagasaki, Japan. In: Hopper K, Harrison G, Janca A, Sartorius N, editors. Recovery from schizophrenia. London: Oxford University Press; 2007.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nakane Y, Araki K, Ohta Y. So-called “Hören von Stimme in der Form von Rede und Gegenrede” of schizophrenia – from the stand point of transcultural psychiatry. Jpn J Soc Psychiatry. 1983;6:93–9 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Harima H. Clinical psychopathology, new edition (translated from Klinische Psychopathologie by Schneider K, 15 Auflage). Tokyo: Bunko-do; 2007.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nakane Y, Takahashi R. International diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. Jpn J Clin Psychiatry. 1982;11:1327–35 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ishizawa M. Study on life events and schizophrenia I. Relationship of life events to onset of illness. Nagasaki Med J. 1983;58:264–88 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Department of Neuro-psychiatry. Japanese version of assessment guideline for WHO/life event schedule. Nagasaki: Nagasaki University School of Medicine; 1983 (private printing, in Japanese).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brown GW, Harris T. Social origins of depression: a study of psychiatric disorder in women. Cambridge: Tavistock Press; 1978.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bleuler E. Dementia praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien. Leipzig: Franz Deuticke; 1911 (translated into Japanese by Iida M, Shimosaka K, Hozaki H, Yasunaga H, 1974. Igaku-Shoin, Tokyo).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chiompi L. Lebensweg und Alter der Schizophrenen. Eine katamnestische Langzeitstudie bis ins Senium. Berlin: Springer; 1976.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Huber G, Gross G, Schüttler R. A long-term follow-up schizophrenia: psychiatric course of illness and prognosis. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1975;52:49–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hayashi A, Akimoto H. Prognosis and treatment of schizophrenia. Psychiatr Neurol Jpn. 1939;43:705–42 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Andreasen NC, Falum M, Arndt S, et al. Positive and negative symptoms: assessment and validity. In: Marneros A, Andreasen NC, Tsuang MT, editors. Negative versus positive schizophrenia. Berlin: Springer; 1991. p. 28–51.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tuang MT, Woolson RF, Flemming JA, et al. Long-term outcome of major psychoses. I. Schizophrenia and affective disorders compared with psychiatrically symptom-free surgical conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1979;39:1295–301.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ichimiya Y, Ishikawa I, Sakurai N, et al. Outcome of schizophrenia. Psychiatr Neurol Jpn. 1986;88:206–34 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ogawa K, Miya M, Watari A, et al. A longterm follow-up study of schizophrenia in Japan: with special reference to the course of social adjustment. Br J Psychiatry. 1987;151:758–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Andreasen NC, Carpenter Jr WT, Kane JM, et al. Remission in schizophrenia; proposed criteria and rationale for consensus. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:441–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeuropsychiatryNagasaki UniversityNagasakiJapan

Personalised recommendations