Cooling Effect of the Ligamentum Flavum for Preventing Dural Puncture during the Epidural Anesthesia

  • Kiyoshi Naemura
Conference paper
Part of the Proceedings in Information and Communications Technology book series (PICT, volume 3)


In order to develop a new epidural needle achieving less deformation of the ligamentum flavum during the needle insertion, preliminary investigation on cooling effect of the ligamentum flavum was done. Porcine spines from a slaughterhouse were heated in 42 degrees Celsius or cooled in 4 degrees Celsius or frozen. Needle insertion tests revealed that cooling the ligamentum flavum showed no significant effect in both the maximum reaction force and the deformation. Conventional epidural needle could not insert the frozen specimens. Stained specimens revealed that the maximum insertion force and the deformation were positively correlated with thickness of the ligamentum flavum.


Epidural insertion needle Ligamentum flavum Deformation Temperature 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kuczkowski, K.M.: The management of accidental dural punc-ture in pregnant women: what does an obstetrician need to know? Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 275(2), 125–131 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vallejo, M.C., et al.: Ultrasound decreases the failed labor epidural rate in resident trainees. Int. J. Obstet. Anesth. 19(4), 373–378 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Naemura, K., Saito, H.: Needle Insertion Test by Porcine Ligamentum Flavum. In: IFMBE Proceedings of WC 2009, vol. 25 /VI, pp. 28–31 (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bass, C.R., et al.: The temperature-dependent viscoelasticity of porcine lumbar spine ligaments. Spine 32(16), E436–E442 (2007)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zarzur, E.: Anatomic studies of the human lumbar ligamentum flavum. Anesth. Analg. 63, 499–502 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Abdel-Meguid, E.M.: An anatomical study of the human lumbar ligamentum flavum. Neurosciences 13(1), 11–16 (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Naemura, K.: Young’s modulus measurement of the porcine ligamentum flavum for evaluating the deformation during epidural insertion. In: Conf. Proc. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2010, pp. 3923–3925 (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Tokyo 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kiyoshi Naemura
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Engineering, School of Health SciencesTokyo University of TechnologyTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations