CQ3. What Is the Frequency (Probability of Cancer Before Examination) of Thyroid Cancer

  • Shinichi Suzuki
  • Nobuhiro Fukunari
  • Kaori Kameyama
  • Megumi Miyakawa
  • Katsuhiro Tanaka
  • Yatsuka Hibi


The thyroid is an accessible organ near the body’s surface which can easily be palpated during a routine physical examination or “ningen dock,” added as a simple adjunct to a sonogram of the breast or picked up by a CT, MRI or PET scan. Thyroid cancer also tends to progress slowly and many latent cancers are discovered in post-mortem pathology.


Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodule Iodine Deficiency Thyroid Tumor Routine Physical Examination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Cancer incidence rate by age and site (2003) by the Foundation for promotion of cancer research, published in Gann no Toukei ‘09, p70, 2009 (RS)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rojeski MT, Gharib H (1985) Nodular thyroid disease. Evaluation and management. N Engl J Med 313:428–436 (NR)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tan G, Gharib H (1997) Thyroid incidentalomas: management approaches to nonpalpable nodules discovered incidentally on thyroid imaging. Ann Int Med 126:226–231 (NR)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Maruchi N, Furihata R, Makiuchi M (1971) Population surveys on the prevalence of thyroid cancer in a non-endemic region, Nagano, Japan. Int J Cancer 7:575–583 (PS)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Takeuchi I, Ito H, Kimura Y et al (1991) (Text in Japanese) Geka Shinryo 33:578–582 (PS)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hamada N (1995) (Text in Japanese) Ijishinpo 3470:22–26 (PS)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Miki H, Inoue H, Komaki K et al (1998) Value of mass screening for thyroid cancer. World J Surg 22:99–102 (PS)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nasu S, Yamasaki N, Sou E et al (1997) (Text in Japanese) Kenkoui 12:61–64 (RS)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Takada N, Fujisawa J, Kiyohara M et al (1992) (Text in Japanese) Kenkoui 7:38–41 (RS)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Suehiro F (2006) Thyroid cancer detected by mass screening over a period of 16 years at a health care center in Japan. Surg Today 36:947–953 (PS)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cohen MS, Arslan N, Liien DL et al (2001) Risk of malignancy in thyroid incidentalomas identified by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. Surgery 130:941–946 (RS)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chu QD, Connor MS, Liien DL et al (2006) Positron emission tomography (PET) positive thyroid incidentalomas: the risk of malignancy observed in a tertiary referral centre. Am Surg 72:272–275 (RS)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen YK, Ding HJ, Chen KT et al (2005) Prevalence and risk of cancer of focal incidentaloma identified by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for cancer screening in healthy subjects. Anticancer Res 25(2B):1421–1426 (RS)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kang KW, Kim S, Kang H et al (2003) Prevalence and risk of cancer of focal incidentaloma identified by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for metastasis evaluation and cancer screening in healthy subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:4100–4104 (RS)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wilhelm SM, Robinson AV, Krishnamurthi SS et al (2007) Evaluation and management of incidental thyroid nodules in patients with another primary malignancy. Surgery 142:581–587 (RS)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shinichi Suzuki
    • 1
  • Nobuhiro Fukunari
    • 2
  • Kaori Kameyama
    • 3
  • Megumi Miyakawa
    • 4
  • Katsuhiro Tanaka
    • 5
  • Yatsuka Hibi
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Organ Regulation SurgeryFukushima Medical University, School of MedicineFukushimaJapan
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryShowa University Northern Yokohama HospitalYokohamaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Diagnostic PathologyKeio University School of MedicineTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Endocrine CenterToranomon HospitalTokyoJapan
  5. 5.Department of Breast and Thyroid SurgeryKawasaki Medical SchoolKurashikiJapan
  6. 6.Department of Endocrine SurgeryFujita Health University School of MedicineToyoakeJapan

Personalised recommendations