The scope of this discussion is limited to non-medullary differentiated thyroid carcinoma, i.e., papillary and follicular carcinoma. Juvenile thyroid carcinomas following X-ray exposure, the Chernobyl nuclear accident and cases associated with specific hereditary diseases (familial adenomatous polyposis, Cowden’s disease) are not included. The upper age limit for juvenile thyroid carcinoma varies in reports and there is no standard definition. Some reports differentiate pediatric thyroid cancer of patients under 10 years of age from juvenile thyroid cancer under 18 or 20. Here, we do not define a strict age limit, but discuss all papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas of non-adult patients. Juvenile thyroid cancer is a rare disease, and most cases are papillary cancer. Prospective studies of the clinical profile, treatment or prognosis of juvenile thyroid cancer are not available and the data is limited to retrospective studies [1–5]. Whether there is a difference in prognosis between juvenile thyroid cancer or juvenile follicular cancer and adult thyroid cancers was evaluated.
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