CQ1. What Are the Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer?

  • Masahisa Saikawa
  • Haruki Akasu


No other scientifically proven risk factors are known at this point.


Thyroid Cancer Iodine Deficiency Iodine Intake Chernobyl Accident Significant Linear Correlation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Thompson DE, Mabuchi K, Ron E et al (1994) Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part II: solid tumors, 1958–1987. Radiat Res 137(Suppl 2):S17–S67 (PS)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Imaizumi M, Usa T, Tominaga T et al (2006) Radiation dose-response relationships for thyroid nodules and autoimmune thyroid diseases in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors 55–58 years after radiation exposure. JAMA 295:1011–1022 (PS)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kazakov VS, Demidchik EP, Astakhova LN (1992) Thyroid cancer after Chernobyl. Nature 359:21 (CaseR)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cardis E, Kesminiene A, Ivanov V et al (2005) Risk of thyroid cancer after exposure to 131I in childhood. J Natl Cancer Inst 97:724–732 (RS)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tronko MD, Howe GR, Bogdanova TI et al (2006) A cohort study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases after the Chernobyl accident: thyroid cancer in Ukraine detected during first screening. J Natl Cancer Inst 98:897–903 (PS)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ron E, Lubin JH, Shore RE et al (1995) Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: a pooled analysis of seven studies. Radiat Res 141:259–277 (SR<RS>)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dickman PW, Holm LE, Lundell G et al (2003) Thyroid cancer risk after thyroid examination with 131I: a population-based cohort study in Sweden. Int J Cancer 106:580–587 (PS)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Franceschi S, Preston-Martin S, Dal Maso L et al (1999) A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. IV. Benign thyroid diseases. Cancer Causes Control 10:583–595 (SR<RS>)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Renehan AG, Tyson M, Egger M et al (2008) Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet 371:569–578 (SR<PS>)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huszno B, Szybinski Z, Przybylik-Mazurek E et al (2003) Influence of iodine deficiency and iodine prophylaxis on thyroid cancer histotypes and incidence in endemic goiter area. J Endocrinol Invest 26:1–76 (RS)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Franceschi S (1998) Iodine intake and thyroid carcinoma: a potential risk factor. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 106:S38–S44 (NR)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Negri E, Dal Maso L, Ron E et al (1999) A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. II. Menstrual and reproductive factors. Cancer Causes Control 10:143–155 (SR<RS>)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Navarro Silvera SA, Miller AB, Rohan TE (2005) Risk factors for thyroid cancer: a prospective cohort study. Int J Cancer 116:433–438 (PS)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    La Vecchia C, Ron E, Franceschi S et al (1999) A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. III. Oral contraceptives, menopausal replacement therapy and other female hormones. Cancer Causes Control 10:157–166 (SR<RS>)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bosetti C, Kolonel L, Negri E et al (2001) A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. VI. Fish and shellfish consumption. Cancer Causes Control 12:375–382 (SR<RS>)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Head and Neck SurgeryNational Center Hospital EastKashiwaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Surgery, Division of Endocrine SurgeryNippon Medical SchoolTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations