Multidrug Efflux Pumps and Development of Therapeutic Strategies to Control Infectious Diseases
Bacteria have developed various ways to resist the toxic effects of antibiotics and other drugs . One of these mechanisms involves the production of enzymes that inactivate antibiotics by hydrolysis or lead to the formation of inactive derivatives . A second mechanism of resistance is target alteration. Cellular targets can be altered by mutation or enzymatic modification in such a way that the affinity of the antibiotic for the target is reduced . These mechanisms are all specific for a single drug or a single class of drugs. However, there are more general mechanisms of resistance in which access of the unaltered agent to the target is prevented by the barrier and active transport functions of biological membranes. The barrier cannot prevent the drugs from exerting their toxic action once they have entered the cell, and the active efflux of drugs is essential to ensure significant levels of drug resistance .
KeywordsEfflux Pump Drug Efflux Bacterial Virulence Major Facilitator Superfamily Physiological Substrate
I thank all my colleagues who contributed to the work discussed in this review. This study was supported by the funding program for Next Generation World-Leading Researchers from Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, and the grant-in-aid from the Uehara Memorial Foundation.
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