Host responses to viral infection are critical for controlling viral replication and subsequent viral eradication. In plants and invertebrates, RNA interference is the major antiviral response; that is, the viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) produced during the viral replication cycle triggers a series of events leading to the selective degradation of the target viral RNA in a nucleotide sequence-specific manner [1–3]. In mammals, two immune responses, innate and adaptive immunity, are critical for protecting against viral infections. In innate immunity, the interferon (IFN) system is activated within hours of viral infection and contributes to the direct inhibition of viral replication and promotes the activation of antigen-specific acquired immunity.
KeywordsViral Replication Interferon Regulatory Factor Antiviral Protein Viral Replication Cycle Entry Receptor
This study was supported by the Uehara Foundation.
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